Brassica nigra (black mustard)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Causes
- Pathway Vectors
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Environmental Impact
- Threatened Species
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Brassica nigra (L.) W.D.J. Koch
Preferred Common Name
- black mustard
Other Scientific Names
- Brassica sinapoides Roth (1830)
- Sinapis incana Thuill.
- Sinapis nigra L. (1753)
- Sisymbrium nigrum (L.) Prantl (1884)
International Common Names
- English: brown mustard; mustard (black); mustard (brown); mustard (red); red mustard
- Spanish: mostaza negra
- French: moutarde noire
- Portuguese: mostarda-negra
Local Common Names
- Germany: Schwarzer Senf; Senf- Kohl; Senfkohl
- Italy: senape nera
- Netherlands: zwarte Mosterd
- Philippines: mustasa
- Sweden: svartsenap
- BRSNI (Brassica nigra)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Brassica nigra is a mustard whose exact native range is uncertain but which is probably native to northern Africa, western and central Asia, and parts of Europe. It is widely cultivated, and has become naturalised in other parts of these continents as well as Australasia and the Americas. In California it is widespread and has invaded shrublands, grasslands, and riparian areas; it is listed as having a Moderate overall invasiveness score by the California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC, 2004). It is listed as a noxious weed in Michigan and as a noxious weed seed in several other US states (USDA-ARS, 2013). It is listed as invasive in New Zealand, Hawaii and the off-shore islands of Chile (Encyclopedia of Life, 2013).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Capparidales
- Family: Brassicaceae
- Genus: Brassica
- Species: Brassica nigra
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
There is some confusion in the literature about mustards. Botanically, four species are involved:
- Brassica carinata A. Braun: Abyssinian or Ethiopian mustard, gommenzer, 2n = 34, BBCC genome. Only known as a cultivated plant from the highlands of Ethiopia and northern Kenya; rarely used outside those areas.
- Brassica juncea (L.) Czernjaew: brown or Indian mustard, 2n = 36, AABB genome.
- Brassica nigra: black mustard, 2n = 16, BB genome. One of the 3 basic diploid cultivated Brassica species in the famous Brassica triangle -- B. nigra (2n = 16, BB genome), B. oleracea L. (2n = 18, CC genome) and B. rapa L. (2n = 20, AA genome) -- from which many Brassica crops are derived.
- Sinapis alba L.: white mustard, 2n = 24, SS genome. It and B. juncea are now the 2 most important mustard species.
Brassica L. and Sinapis L. are closely related and difficult to distinguish. Some easily recognizable differences are that Sinapis has pale green leaves, petals with short claws and fruits with bristles, whereas Brassica often has grey-green leaves, petals with larger claws and smooth fruits.
DescriptionTop of page
A much branched annual herb 0.5-1.5 m tall, with a firm taproot. Stem erect, terete, up to 1.5 cm in diameter, glabrous or bristly hairy, green or slightly glaucous. Leaves rather variable, petiolate, in a rosette and large in young plants, alternating and becoming gradually smaller further up the stem; lower leaves large, up to 16 cm x 5 cm, pinnatifid or pinnatilobed, usually with 2 lower lobes and a much larger terminal lobe, central leaves moderately lobed; lower and central leaves irregularly dentate and often partly bristly hairy; uppermost leaves narrow-lanceolate, small, entire, glabrous. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, bractless racemes, all together arranged paniculately; flowers bisexual, up to 8 mm long, 4-merous, bright yellow, on short pedicel; sepals 4, narrowly elliptical, 3-4 mm x 1.5 mm, spreading horizontally; petals 4, clawed-obovate, 6-8 mm x 2 2.5 mm; stamens 6, outer whorl of 2 shorter, inner whorl of 4 longer ones; pistil slightly shorter than longest stamens, with sessile, superior, elongated ovary and a style ending in a semi-globose stigma. Fruit a silique, 4-sided with rather flat sides, up to 2.5 cm long, with a short beak at apex, erect and closely appressed to the inflorescence axis, containing 4-10 seeds, dehiscing when ripe. Seed globose, about 1 mm in diameter, black to red-brown, minutely pitted. Seedling with epigeal germination.
Plant TypeTop of page Annual
DistributionTop of page
B. nigra most probably originated in the Asia Minor-Iran area, but at present it occurs wild in the Mediterranean region, throughout central Europe, in the Middle East and in the Ethiopian highlands. It is widely cultivated and has been introduced to other parts of its native continents as well as Australasia and the Americas (USDA-ARS, 2013). Its shattering fruits make it unsuitable for large-scale, mechanized cultivation, so it has largely been substituted by brown or Indian mustard (B. juncea (L.) Czernjaew).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Afghanistan||Present||Native||GBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013|
|China||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Algeria||Present||Native||GBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013|
|Cape Verde||Present||Introduced||USDA-ARS, 2013|
|Eritrea||Present||Native||GBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013|
|Morocco||Present||Native||GBIF, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013|
|South Africa||Present||Introduced||USDA-ARS, 2013|
|Canada||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-British Columbia||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2013|
|-New Brunswick||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2013|
|-Newfoundland and Labrador||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2013|
|-Nova Scotia||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2013|
|-Prince Edward Island||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2013|
|USA||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-California||Widespread||Introduced||Invasive||Cal-IPC, California Invasive Plant Council; USDA-NRCS, 2013||Moderately invasive|
|-District of Columbia||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2013|
|-New Hampshire||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2013|
|-New Jersey||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2013|
|-New Mexico||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2013|
|-New York||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2013|
|-North Carolina||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2013|
|-North Dakota||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2013|
|-Rhode Island||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2013|
|-South Dakota||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2013|
|-West Virginia||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2013|
Central America and Caribbean
|Turks and Caicos Islands||Present||Introduced||GBIF, 2013|
|Czech Republic||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2013|
|Norway||Present||Introduced||USDA-ARS, 2013||In south|
|Russian Federation||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Southern Russia||Present||Native||USDA-ARS, 2013|
|Sweden||Present||Introduced||USDA-ARS, 2013||In south|
|New Zealand||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Encyclopedia of Life, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013|
|US Minor Outlying Islands||Present||Introduced||USDA-ARS, 2013||Midway Atoll|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
The risk of local spread is high as a result of seed dehiscence (Hayashi et al., 2010) but that of long distance spread is low to moderate due to the lack of known natural long distance dispersers. In the United States the only state to list B. nigra as a noxious weed is Michigan, although some others list it as a noxious-weed seed (USDA-ARS, 2013).
HabitatTop of page
B. nigra is a disturbance-following weed; in California it occurs in habitat openings caused by natural disturbances, roads, urban developments, agricultural fields, etc. (Cal-IPC, 2004). It can be found growing wild in a variety of plant communities but in southern California it is restricted to coastal regions with higher soil moisture and is replaced inland by more drought-tolerant exotic mustards (K. Palenscar, formerly of Department of Botany and Plant Science, University of California, Riverside, California, USA, personal communication, 2013).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Cultivated / agricultural land||Principal habitat||Productive/non-natural|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Disturbed areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Rail / roadsides||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Secondary/tolerated habitat||Natural|
|Scrub / shrublands||Principal habitat||Natural|
|Coastal areas||Principal habitat||Natural|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
B. nigra is one of the 3 basic diploid cultivated Brassica species in the famous Brassica triangle: 2n = 16, BB genome.
Germplasm collections are available at the national gene banks of India, the USA, Canada and the Netherlands.
B. nigra is cross-fertilizing. Pollination is by insects, for example various bee species and pollen beetles such as Meligethes spp. Seeds germinate soon after the first rains, or after sowing when the plant is grown as a crop. It is reported that the species can establish itself from the soil seedbank after a 40-year fire interval (Cal-IPC, 2004).
Physiology, Phenology, Growth and Development
The first leaves are usually visible within 48 hours. Early growth is very rapid. Flower initiation may start as early as 2 weeks after germination, but usually occurs after 4-6 weeks. Fruit maturation takes another 4-8 weeks. The crop is ready for harvesting 40-100 days after sowing. Fruit ripening starts at the base of the plants and proceeds upwards.
When B. nigra is grown as a crop, natural selection for earliness amongst volunteer plants may cause it to develop as a troublesome weed.
When grown in a common garden experiment, invasive populations of B. nigra grew taller, were more massive, and produced lighter seeds than native populations of B. nigra independent of herbivory pressure (Oduor et al. 2011). This research supports the idea of post-introduction rapid evolution of plant traits in B. nigra which has created more invasive plants in novel environments.
B. nigra is adapted to a range of temperate and subtropical climates, but is unsuited to wet tropical lowlands. It tolerates annual rainfall of 300-1700 mm, but is grown chiefly as a rainfed crop in areas of low to moderate rainfall. The reported range of average annual temperatures that it tolerates is 6-27°C, and that of pH is 4.9-8.2. While suited to many soils except heavy clays, black mustard grows best on light sandy loams or deep rich fertile soils (Center for New Crops & Plant Products, 2013).
Cruciferous plants are characterized by a range of glucosinolates or mustard-oil glucosides contained in the seeds and other tissues. Also occurring in the tissues is the enzyme myrosinase, which, in the presence of watery substances, splits glucosinolates into volatile or oily isothiocyanates and glucose. The glucosinolate of B. nigra, called sinigrin, releases the aggressive, volatile allyl isothiocyanate which is responsible for the pungent taste of black mustard; it is also a strong irritant of the mucous membranes and skin, and is used in dog and cat repellents.
The glucosinolate content of the seed varies from 110-140 micro-mol/g. Per 100 g edible portion seeds contain: water 8 g, protein 29 g, fat 28 g, carbohydrates 19 g, fibre 11 g and ash 5 g (Ca 0.4 g, P 0.6 g, Fe 21 mg), beta-carotene equivalent 0.6 g, thiamine 0.4 mg, riboflavin 0.31 mg, and niacin 7.3 mg. Since the whole seed is used, condiment mustard is in fact quite a complete and nutritious food. The many medicinal properties should therefore not always solely be attributed to the quite overwhelming action of the isothiocyanates. The 1000-seed weight is 2-4 g.
Adulterations and Substitutes
Brown mustard (B. juncea) has largely taken the place of B. nigra for the production of condiment mustard. B. juncea (2n = 36) is an allotetraploid species containing the BB genome of B. nigra in addition to the AA genome of B. rapa L.; it also produces the glucosinolate sinigrin characteristic of B. nigra. In Asia B. juncea is most important as a vegetable and oilseed crop.
ClimateTop of page
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Tolerated||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Df - Continental climate, wet all year||Tolerated||Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)|
|Ds - Continental climate with dry summer||Preferred||Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)|
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||6||27|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||43.9|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||-1.7|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||10||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||300||1700||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page Uniform
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Beet western yellows virus|
|Potato yellow dwarf virus||Pathogen|
|Pseudomonas marginalis pv. marginalis|
|Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola|
|Turnip mosaic virus|
|Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris|
|Xanthomonas campestris pv. raphani|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
B. nigra is affected by a range of insects, nematodes, fungi, bacteria and viruses, many of which can be pests when it is grown as a crop. Possible diseases include black leaf rot (Alternaria brassicae) and stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum). Insect pests include seed-pod weevils (Ceutorhynchus spp.), flea beetles (Phyllotreta spp.) and aphids (for example Brevicoryne brassicae). Birds can cause havoc in ripening crops.
In California, B. nigra may be declining where Hirschfeldia incana and Brassica tournefortii have more recently displaced it as the dominant alien in sage scrub (Cal-IPC, 2004).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
The local rate of spread is slow unless there is disturbance (Cal-IPC, 2004)
Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)
B. nigra disperses seed via silique dehiscence which may propel seeds several metres from the parent plant (Hayashi et al. (2010) describe the mechanism in the related species Cardamine parviflora). Saltation may provide additional local dispersal (Cal-IPC, 2004).
Vector Transmission (Biotic)
Rodents may disperse seeds locally (Cal-IPC, 2004).
Mustard seeds are sticky when wet, facilitating dispersal on vehicles. When the species grows as a field crop weed in hay fields, seeds may be dispersed along with the hay when it is sold (Cal-IPC, 2004).
When grown as a crop plant the species is moved across national boundaries and intentionally propagated.
Pathway CausesTop of page
Pathway VectorsTop of page
|Clothing, footwear and possessions||Via seed, soiled footwear, accidental||Yes||Yes||Cal-IPC, California Invasive Plant Council|
|Land vehicles||Via seed, soiled tyres||Yes||Cal-IPC, California Invasive Plant Council|
|Soil, sand and gravel||Via seed||Yes||Yes||Cal-IPC, California Invasive Plant Council|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Economic/livelihood||Positive and negative|
Economic ImpactTop of page
When B. nigra is grown as a crop, volunteer plants can cause a significant weed problem.
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact on Habitats
In California, B. nigra may increase fuel loads and so increase fire intensity, but only where alien annual grasses have already altered the fire regime, so the additional effect of this species may only be slight. B. nigra is an early successional species, which may decline in dominance as native species re-establish, but this probably varies among vegetation types. It may persist indefinitely in riparian areas with repeated natural disturbance. Over 50% of coastal scrub plant communities and 20-50% of coastal bluff scrub plant communities in California are invaded by B. nigra (Cal-IPC, 2004).
Impact on biodiversity
B. nigra may reduce biomass and fecundity of co-existing species. It can produce large amounts of biomass, and matures early in the phenologic year, possibly usurping soil water before other native annual plants reach peak development (Cal-IPC, 2004, describing the situation in California). It is reported to establish from the seedbank in chaparral after a 40-year fire-free interval (DiTomaso and Healy, 2007). B. nigra is non-mycorrhizal and reduces soil biodiversity when present (Lankau et al., 2010). It also inhibits the germination of other species through allelopathy, supporting dense stands of nearly monotypic mustard (Bell and Muller, 1973; Turk and Tawaha, 2003). Through apparent competition it was found to reduce native plant establishment (Orrock et al., 2008).
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Acanthomintha ilicifolia||NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened species||California||Competition - monopolizing resources||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009|
|Verbesina dissita (big-leaved crownbeard)||National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened species||California||Competition - monopolizing resources||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010b|
|Vulpes macrotis mutica (San Joaquin kit fox)||USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered species||California||Ecosystem change / habitat alteration||US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010a|
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Is a habitat generalist
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
- Fast growing
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Altered trophic level
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Increases vulnerability to invasions
- Modification of successional patterns
- Monoculture formation
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition - shading
- Competition - smothering
- Interaction with other invasive species
- Rapid growth
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
UsesTop of page
The seed of B. nigra has been used as a spice and medicine since ancient times in the Middle East, India and Greece. Finely ground seeds of black mustard provide mustard meal, a neutral odourless powder which stores well if kept dry. This meal, mixed with vinegar, is the pungent condiment or table mustard known as French and English mustard. Adding vinegar to a coarsely ground mixture of seeds of black mustard and of white mustard (Sinapis alba) produces the milder German or Dutch mustard. In Europe and North America, condiment mustard used to be prepared in the home by rolling a metal ball in a bowl of mustard seed and then mixing vinegar into the resulting crushed seed. Other herbs may be added according to taste and tradition and, for a milder taste, sugar, honey or starchy substances. There are numerous manufacturers' recipes. In cooking, mustard is mainly used to flavour meat dishes and sauces for meat, fish, salads, and snacks. In mayonnaise preparation it is also added as an emulsion stabilizer. The regulatory status of black mustard in the USA is 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS 2760).
In traditional medicine, mustard meal mixed with water was used extensively as a plaster preparation and to prepare mustard baths to treat skin ailments, arthritis and rheumatism. The seeds are used as a diaphoretic, diuretic, emetic, expectorant, irritant and stimulant. Tea prepared from the seed is used to cure sore throat and to relieve bronchitis and rheumatism. Hot water poured on crushed seed makes a household remedy for headaches and colds and a stimulating foot bath. Mustard oil is said to stimulate hair growth.
Allyl isothiocyanate from B. nigra is used in cat and dog repellents.
B. nigra is a copious nectar producer and yields a mild-flavoured, light-coloured honey.
Naturalised or invasive B. nigra has no economic value.
In California B. nigra is viewed by some as a beautiful wildflower which carpets the coastal landscape in yellow flowers in spring.
B. nigra provides pollen to insects and bees.
Uses ListTop of page
- Soil improvement
- Sociocultural value
Human food and beverage
- Spices and culinary herbs
- Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
Detection and InspectionTop of page
It is unlikely that whole plant transportation would occur, but transport of B. nigra seed is likely, and it is seeds that would have to be detected. B. nigra seeds are dark brown to black with a pungent taste, spherical, and 1.2–1.5 mm wide.
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
B. nigra can be confused with other mustard species.
In southern California it can be confused with shortpod mustard (Hirschfeldia incana), Sahara mustard (B. tournefortii) and field mustard (B. rapa) (Baldwin et al., 2012). H. incana is a biennial or short-lived perennial species. Siliques of both B. nigra and H. incana are short and appressed to the flowering stem. B. nigra generally has a single main stem that grows to over one metre tall, whereas H. incana generally has several stems that grow to one metre or less. Sahara mustard (B. tournefortii) has stiff hairy basal leaves and siliques that are spreading, not appressed. Field mustard (B. rapa) has cauline sessile leaves with no hairs.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
When B. nigra is grown as a crop, harvested plants should preferably be bunched and put to dry on a floor. This ensures that most seeds will be collected and that there will be no large-scale seed losses in the field leading to subsequent massive growth of volunteer plants causing a weed problem.
The California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC) and its student chapter work to bring practitioners, researchers and the general public together on issues related to wildland invasive weeds.
This species is so widespread in California that eradication there is generally not a realistic goal.
Plants can be cut below the crown, or individual plants can be pulled up by hand, prior to fruit development.
When plants are still in the vegetative rosette stage, application of a foliar herbicide has good results.
Various mitigation projects in coastal California control B. nigra as part of their restoration goals.
Active control of B. nigra is necessary to restore an ecosystem since the species alters soil chemistry, biota and ecology through allelopathy.
BibliographyTop of page Burkill IH, 1966. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. Revised reprint of the 1935 edition. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, 361-363.
Fenwick GR, Heaney RK, Mullin WJ, 1982. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products in food and food plants. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 18(2):123-201.
Hemingway JS, 1995. Mustards. In: Smartt J, Simmonds NW (Eds). Evolution of crop plants. 2nd edition. Harlow, UK: Longman Scientific & Technical, 82-86.
Schuster W, Klein H, 1978. Ueber okologische Einflusse auf Leistung und Qualitat der Samen einiger Sorten der Senfarten Sinapis alba, Brassica juncea und Brassica nigra [Ecological influences on seed yield and quality of the mustard species Sinapis alba, Brassica juncea and Brassica nigra]. Zeitschrift für Acker- und Pflanzenbau, 147(3):204-227.
Vaughan JG, Hemingway JS, 1959. The utilization of mustards. Economic Botany, 13(3):196-203.
ReferencesTop of page
Baldwin BG, Goldman DH, Keil DJ, Patterson R, Rasatti TJ, Wilken DH, 2012. The Jepson manual: vascular plants of California. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California Press.
Bell D, Muller CH, 1973. Dominance of California Annual Grasslands by Brassica nigra. The American Midland Naturalist, 90(2):277-299.
Cal-IPC (California Invasive Plant Council), 2004. Cal-IPC Plant Assessment Form for Brassica nigra. Berkeley, California, USA: California Invasive Plant Council. http://www.cal-ipc.org/paf/site/paf/500
Center for New Crops & Plant Products, 2013. CropINDEX. West Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Center for New Crops & Plant Products, Purdue University. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/Indices/index_ab.html
Encyclopedia of Life, 2013. Encyclopedia of Life. http://www.eol.org
Euro+Med, 2013. Euro+Med PlantBase. http://www.emplantbase.org/home.html
Fenwick GR, Heaney RK, Mullin WJ, 1982. Glucosinolates and their breakdown products in food and food plants. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 18(2):123-201.
GBIF, 2013. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). http://data.gbif.org/species/
Hayashi M, Gerry SP, Ellerby DJ, 2010. The seed dispersal catapult of Cardamine parviflora (Brassicaceae) is efficient but unreliable. American Journal of Botany, 97(10):1595-1601. http://www.amjbot.org/
Hemingway JS, 1995. Mustards. In: Evolution of crop plants, 2nd edition [ed. by Smartt, J. \Simmonds, N. W.]. Harlow, UK: Longman Scientific & Technical, 82-86.
Lankau RA, Wheeler E, Bennett AE, Strauss SY, 2011. Plant-soil feedbacks contribute to an intransitive competitive network that promotes both genetic and species diversity. Journal of Ecology (Oxford), 99(1):176-185. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2745
Oduor AMO, Lankau RA, Strauss SY, Gómez JM, 2011. Introduced Brassica nigra populations exhibit greater growth and herbivore resistance but less tolerance than native populations in the native range. New Phytologist, 191(2):536-544. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1469-8137
Orrock JL, Witter MS, Reichman OJ, 2008. Apparent competition with an exotic plant reduces native plant establishment. Ecology, 89(4):1168-1174. http://www.esajournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1890%2F07-0223.1
Ravindran, P. N., 2017. The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Spices. Wallingford, UK, CAB International ,
Schuster W, Klein H, 1978. Ecological influences on seed yield and quality in some varieties of Sinapis alba, Brassica juncea and Brassica nigra. (Uber okologische Einflusse auf Leistung und Qualitat der Samen einiger Sorten der Senfarten Sinapis alba, Brassica juncea und Brassica nigra.) Zeitschrift fur Acker- und Pflanzenbau, 147(3):204-227.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: Acanthomintha ilicifolia (San Diego thornmint). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 39 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc2571.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Verbesina dissita (Big-leaved crownbeard). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 38 pp.. https://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3559.pdf
USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
USDA-NRCS, 2013. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/
OrganizationsTop of page
USA: California Invasive Plant Council (Cal-IPC), 1442-A Walnut Street, #462, Berkeley, California, CA 94709, http://www.cal-ipc.org/
ContributorsTop of page
01/04/2013 Updated by:
Kai Palenscar, Department of Botany and Plant Science, University of California, Riverside, California, USA.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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