Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bromus sterilis
(barren brome)

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Datasheet

Bromus sterilis (barren brome)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bromus sterilis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • barren brome
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
B. sterilis infestation.
TitleInfestation
CaptionB. sterilis infestation.
CopyrightAbdelkader Taleb
B. sterilis infestation.
InfestationB. sterilis infestation.Abdelkader Taleb

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bromus sterilis L.

Preferred Common Name

  • barren brome

Other Scientific Names

  • Anisantha sterilis (L.) Nevski
  • Genea sterilis (L.) Dumort.

International Common Names

  • English: barren bromegrass; poverty brome; sterile brome
  • Spanish: bromo esteril
  • French: brome stérile

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: gold hejre
  • Finland: hietakattara
  • Germany: Taube Trespe
  • Italy: forasacco rosso
  • Japan: arechi-no-cha-hiki
  • Netherlands: ijle dravik
  • Spain: barbas de macho estéril
  • Sweden: sandlosta

EPPO code

  • BROST (Bromus sterilis)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Bromus
  •                                 Species: Bromus sterilis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The synonym Anisantha sterilis (L.) Nevski has been used until quite recently in Europe (e.g., Stace, 1991), this genus name being applied to species otherwise included in Bromus sect. Genea Dumort., differing from Bromus sensu stricto in having spikelets almost straight-sided, widening towards the top, rather than ovate to lanceolate, and having glumes with only one to three veins.

A modern re-assessment of the taxonomy and nomenclature of the annual taxa within the mainly Mediterranean/southwestern Asiatic Bromus section Genea is given by Sales (1993) in which B. sterilis, B. diandrus and B. rigidus are considered as varieties of one species while recognizing that they have often been treated as separate species in recent floras. For the purposes of this Compendium, these three taxa are covered by separate species datasheets.

Description

Top of page B. sterilis is an annual or biennial plant, 30-80 cm high. Stem (culms) erect, smooth, sometimes rough at the very top. Leaves smooth, pale green, leaf blade hairy, glossy underneath, leaf sheath hairy and closed. Leaves without auricles; ligule 2-4 mm long, white, membranous, fringed with hairs. Lamina and leaf sheath abundantly hairy, purplish/rose veins. Inflorescence a purplish or green panicle, lax, drooping, up to 15 cm long. Spikelet branches usually much longer than the spikelets. Spikelets 20-25 mm long, 6- to 13-flowered, strongly compressed, glumes slightly unequal, glabrous with 1-3 veins. Lemma 13-20 mm with a dorsal awn 15-35 mm long. Disarticulating above the persistent glumes. Grain 10 mm long. For further information see Clapham et al. (1952), Hubbard (1959), Hoechst Schering AgrEvo (1995).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Grass / sedge
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of page Native records are based on USDA-ARS (2004) and Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
ArmeniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
AzerbaijanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
IranPresentNativeMaire, 1955; USDA-ARS, 2004
IraqPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
IsraelPresentNativeWeinstein and Karschon, 1981; USDA-ARS, 2004
JordanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
LebanonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
SyriaPresentNativeMaire, 1955; USDA-ARS, 2004
TurkeyPresentNativeJahandiez and Maire, 1931; Maire, 1955; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
TurkmenistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
UzbekistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative Not invasive Jahandiez and Maire, 1931; Maire, 1955; Quezél and Santa, 1963; USDA-ARS, 2004
EgyptPresentIntroduced Invasive Jahandiez and Maire, 1931; Maire, 1955
LibyaPresentNative Not invasive Jahandiez and Maire, 1931; Maire, 1955; Ali et al., 1989
MoroccoPresentNative Not invasive Jahandiez and Maire, 1931; Maire, 1955; Valdes et al., 2002; USDA-ARS, 2004
TunisiaPresentNative Invasive Jahandiez and Maire, 1931; Maire, 1955; USDA-ARS, 2004

North America

USA
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-ColoradoPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-DelawarePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-IdahoPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-IndianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-MarylandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-MichiganPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-MissouriPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-NevadaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-New YorkPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-OhioPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-OregonPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-TennesseePresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2004
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-UtahPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2004

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
AustriaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
BelgiumPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
BulgariaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
CyprusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
Czech RepublicPresentNative Invasive Stolcová, 2002
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
DenmarkPresentNativeGibson and Kerchove, 1999; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
FinlandPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004
FrancePresentNativeJahandiez and Maire, 1931; Maire, 1955; Tutin et al., 1980; Guinochet and Vilmorin, 1984; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
-CorsicaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
GermanyPresentNativeGibson and Kerchove, 1999; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
GreecePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
-CretePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
HungaryPresentNativeSolymosi, 1989; Dellei and Németh, 1996; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
IrelandPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
ItalyPresentNativeJahandiez and Maire, 1931; Maire, 1955; Zanin et al., 1993; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
-SardiniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
-SicilyPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
NetherlandsPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
NorwayPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
PolandPresentNativeKosina and Frey, 1996; Krzakowa, 1997; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
PortugalPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
-AzoresPresentNativeJahandiez and Maire, 1931; Maire, 1955
RomaniaPresentNativeGroza, 1986; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
Russian Federation
-Central RussiaPresentGudzhinskas, 1991; Popov, 1994
-Southern RussiaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
-Western SiberiaPresentNativeMaire, 1955
SpainPresentNativeJahandiez and Maire, 1931; Maire, 1955; Tutin et al., 1980; Valdes et al., 1987; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
-Balearic IslandsPresentNativeJahandiez and Maire, 1931; Maire, 1955; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
SwedenPresentNative Invasive Andersson et al., 2002; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
SwitzerlandPresentNative Invasive Sergei et al., 2002; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
UKPresentNative Invasive Mortimer et al., 1993; Gibson and Kerchove, 1999; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
UkrainePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Weiller et al., 1995
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced Invasive Mock and Amor, 1982
New ZealandPresentIntroduced1867 Invasive Talbot, 1982; Forde and Edgar, 1995

Habitat

Top of page B. sterilis occurs in ruderal situations, on wastelands and roadsides, but has also become increasingly abundant in arable habitats where shallow cultivation is practised. It is found in all the major soil types (clays, loams and sands; acid, neutral and alkaline) and grows in dry or moist soil. It can tolerate drought and strong winds but not maritime exposure (INRA, 2001).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page B. sterilis is considered to be a noxious agricultural and horticultural weed in the Mediterranean region (Taleb, 1997; Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000; Hamal et al., 2001). The main crops affected are wheat, barley and crops in rotation with cereals (sugarbeet, sunflower, chickpea, faba bean and lentil; Taleb, 1997).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Genetics

B. sterilis has a chromosome number of 2n=14 (Anon., 2000). However, a new polyploid number (2n=28) was reported by Queiros (1981).

Physiology and Phenology

The germination of B. sterilis seeds was inhibited by Pfr (the far-red-light-absorbing form of phytochrome). The degree of inhibition was dependent on the proportion of Pfr which had established in the seed. This inhibition was transitory and at 15°C was evident in 40% of seeds 1.5 days after sowing. Pfr inhibition persisted more at temperatures below 15° than at temperatures above 15°C which were inhibitory to germination anyway. The inhibitory effect of Pfr was also increased in conditions of low substrate moisture content (Hilton, 1984). Andersson et al. (2002) confirmed that germination of B. sterilis in Sweden is strongly inhibited by light, while there was much variation in dormancy. Longevity of B. sterilis is relatively short, with few seeds persisting beyond 12 months under field conditions (Lutman et al., 2003).

Optimum germination of B. sterilis seeds under laboratory conditions was achieved at about 15-25°C and soil depths of 0.5 cm (Mikulka, 1987).

Plant densities of Bromus spp. (including B. sterilis) in Morocco varied from 330 to 661 plants/m², with a maximum height of 102 cm and a leaf area index of 6. The net daily assimilation rate was 4 g/m² and daily growth rates varied from 3.2 to 7.7 g/m². The nitrogen content of leaves varied from 3.8 to 4.1% and total protein content of seeds was 10.9%. The weight of 1000 kernels varied from 20 to 24 g (Hamal et al., 1998).

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration08number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Winter

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page B. sterilis has been reported as a host of Wheat streak mosaic virus (Rabenstein and Stanarius, 1981) and of Wheat dwarf virus (Mehner et al., 2003). It is susceptible to a Drechslera species (Pyrenophora chaetomioides) which may have potential as a mycoherbicide (Lawrie et al., 1998). The seeds are also predated by small animals; Povey et al. (1993) concluded that small mammals probably play a role in the population dynamics of major crop weeds, including B. sterilis, by feeding on their seeds in field margins.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page In general, propagation is by seed. Long-distance dispersal could occur by contamination of crop seeds and forages and attachment to animals.

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
True seeds (inc. grain) seeds Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Positive
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) Positive
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page B. sterilis is a serious weed problem of autumn-sown cereals (Mortimer et al., 1993). In Morocco, five species of Bromus (B. rigidus, B. rubens, B. sterilis, B. madritensis and B. mollis) are causing problems in wheat in the Sais area: 17% of fields were slightly infested (density of Bromus (Dbr) < 90 plants/m²), 61% were moderately infested (90 < Dbr < 290 plants/m²) and 22% were highly infested (Dbr > 400 plants/m²) (Hamal et al., 2001).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page All Bromus species are very similar at the seedling and vegetative stages. The separation of B. sterilis, B. rigidus and B. diandrus in the field at all development stages is difficult (Maire, 1955; Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000). When flowering, B. sterilis differs from B. diandrus and B. rigidus in having lemmas 13-20 mm long (compared with 20-35 mm; Stace, 1991).

Prevention and Control

Top of page Cultural Control

Compared with chemical control, control by cultural methods such as crop rotation and delayed drilling may be more economic. Cultural techniques aimed at preventing the invasion of Bromus spp. from hedgerows are also important (Jarvis, 1982).

Mechanical Control

Deep tillage decreases Bromus spp. germination (Peters et al., 1993; Hamal et al., 2001), whereas shallow tillage increased seedling emergence and subsequent seedbank decline (Anderson, 1998). Long-term studies conducted in the UK showed that ploughing was the most effective method of control. In the absence of ploughing, B. sterilis built up in subsequent crops, and dramatically increased in the third year of cropping (Turley et al., 1996).

Chemical Control

Under field conditions, good control of B. sterilis was obtained by applying fluazifop-P (Milkulka, 1987; Boatman, 1993). Removal of competition by B. sterilis on wheat was obtained by sulfosulfuron applications in the UK, Denmark and Germany (Gibson and Kerchove, 1999). Best control was also achieved by autumn application of tri-allate, isoproturon, metoxuron and metoxuron + simazine (Orson , 1981; Pollard and Richardson, 1981; Rule, 1989; Jarvis, 1982). However, metoxuron applied in April was much less effective (Pollard and Richardson, 1981). Good to excellent control of B. sterilis was obtained using terbutryn or methabenzthiazuron (Milkulka, 1987). The fungicide tridemorph has been trialled as a selective herbicide for the control of Bromus sterilis in barley (Watt, 1983).

References

Top of page

Ali SI; Jafri SMH; El Gadi A, 1989. Flora of Libya. Tripoli, Libya: Al Faateh University.

Anderson RL, 1998. Seedling emergence of winter annual grasses as affected by limited tillage and crop canopy. Weed Technology, 12(2):262-267; 37 ref.

Andersson L; Milberg P; Schntz W; Steinmetz O, 2002. Germination characteristics and emergence time of annual Bromus species of differing weediness in Sweden. Weed Research (Oxford), 42(2):135-147; 46 ref.

Anon, 2000. Codex Plantarum Vascularium Balearicum. Familia: POACEAE. (R. Br.) Barnh. Bulletin Torrey Botanical Club, 22:7.

Boatman ND, 1993. Selective control of Bromus sterilis in field boundaries with fluazifop-P-butyl. Brighton crop protection conference, weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 22-25 November 1993 Farnham, UK; British Crop Protection Council (BCPC), Vol. 1:349-354

Clapham AR; Tutin TG; Warburg EF; eds, 1952. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Cooper J; Moerkerk M, 2000. Bromus diandrus, Bromus rigidus. Weed ID/ Management. Australia. http://weedman.horsham.net.au/weeds/bromus_spp/bromus.htm.

Dellei A; NTmeth I, 1996. Spread of dangerous and adventitious weeds in Heves county. No^umlaut~ve^acute~nyve^acute~delem, 32(10):507-513; 28 ref.

Forde MB; Edgar E, 1995. Checklist of pooid grasses naturalised in New Zealand. 3. Tribes Bromeae ad Brachypodieae. New Zealand Journal of Botany 33:35-42.

Gibson G; Kerchove Gde, 1999. Timing-related yield increases in winter wheat after applications of MON37500 herbicide to control Barren Brome (Bromus sterilis). 1999 Brighton crop protection conference: weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 15-18 November 1999., Volume 1:87-92; 2 ref.

Groza G, 1986. Analysis of the cormoflora in the Misid valley (Padurea Craiului mountains, Bihor province). Contributii Botanice, Universitatea Cluj Napoca, Gradina Botanica, 115-121.

Gudzhinskas ZA, 1991. Supplement to the adventive flora of the Kaliningrad region. Gramineae. Botanicheskii Zhurnal, 76(10):1441-1446; 22 ref.

Guinochet M; Vilmorin R de, 1984. Flore de France, Vols 1-5. Paris, France: Editions du CNRS.

Hamal A; Benbella M; Msatef Y; Bouhache M; Rzozi SB, 1998. Biological aspects of Bromus rigidus Roth, a weed of cereals in Morocco. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 63(3a):813-815.

Hamal A; Benbella M; Rzozi SB; Bouhache M; Msatef Y, 2001. Cartography and geographical spread of the weedy bromes (Bromus spp.) of cereals in the Sais area of Morocco. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 66(2b):761-768.

Hamet-Ahti L; Suominen J; Ulvinen T; Uotila P, 1998. Field Flora of Finland. Retkeilykasvio, Ed. 4:656 pp.

Hilton JR, 1984. The influence of temperature and moisture status on the photoinhibition of seed germination in Bromus sterilis L. by the far-red absorbing form of phytochrome. New Phytologist, 97(3):369-374

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Hubbard CE, 1959. Grasses. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books.

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Krzakowa M, 1997. Genetic variation in barren brome, Bromus sterilis (Poaceae). Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica, 42(2):249-253; 17 ref.

Lawrie J; Greaves MP; Down VM, 1998. Drechslera sp. (Pyrenophora chaetomioides (Speg.)), a potential biocontrol agent for Bromus sterilis and other Bromus spp. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 8(4):479-484.

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Mikulka J, 1987. Some biological properties of Bromus sterilis and its sensitivity to herbicides. Sbornik UVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin, 23(4):293-299

Mock IT; Amor RL, 1982. Brome grasses (Bromus spp.) as contaminants of barley grain in the Victorian Mallee. Australian Weeds, 2(1):16-17

Mortimer AM; Putwain PD; Howard CL, 1993. The abundance of broom grasses in arable agriculture comparative population studies of four species. Brighton crop protection conference, weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 22-25 November 1993 Farnham, UK; British Crop Protection Council (BCPC), Vol. 2:505-514

Orson JH, 1981. The control of Bromus sterilis in cereals with herbicides. Agricultural Development and Advisory Service results 1979 and 1980. [Proceedings of the] Conference on Grass Weeds in Cereals in the United Kingdom, Reading, 1981. Association of Applied Biologists. National Vegetable Research Station, Wellesbourne, Warwick, CV35 9EF UK, 291-298

Peters NCB; Froud-Williams RJ; Orson JH, 1993. The rise of barren brome Bromus sterilis in UK cereal crops. Brighton crop protection conference, weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 22-25 November 1993 Farnham, UK; British Crop Protection Council (BCPC), Vol. 2:773-780

Pollard F; Richardson WG, 1981. Chemical control of Bromus sterilis in winter wheat and barley. [Proceedings of the] Conference on Grass Weeds in Cereals in the United Kingdom, Reading, 1981. Association of Applied Biologists. National Vegetable Research Station, Wellesbourne, Warwick, CV35 9EF UK, 273-281

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Rabenstein F; Stanarius A, 1981. A new race of wheat streak mosaic virus on Hordeum murinum L. and Bromus sterilis L. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 35(9):190-191

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Rule JS, 1989. Sequential herbicide programmes 1987/88 to prevent the spread of Bromus sterilis. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Weeds, Vol. 1:365-370

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Solymosi P, 1989. Studies of the occurrence of Bromus species in Pest County. Novenyvedelem, 25(5):193-198

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Stolcovß J, 2002. Secondary succession on an early abandoned field: vegetation composition and production of biomass. Plant Protection Science, 38(4):149-154; 13 ref.

Talbot EA, 1982. Grazing management in practice in Otago. Lucerne for the 80's Agronomy Society of New Zealand Christchurch New Zealand, 97-99

Taleb A, 1997. Le brome: monographie. Revue de l’AMM, 1(1):2-6.

Turley DB; Bacon ET; Shepherd CE; Peters NCB; Potyka I; Glen DM; Dampney PMR; Johnson PN, 1996. Straw incorporation - rotational ploughing for grass weed control. Aspects of Applied Biology, No. 47:257-264; 7 ref.

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Valdes B; Talavera S; Fernadez-Galiano E, 1987. Flora Vascular de Andalucia Occidental, Vol. 3. Barcelona, Spain.

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