Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bromus rigidus
(ripgut brome)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Bromus rigidus (ripgut brome)

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
B. rigidus seedling.
TitleSeedling
CaptionB. rigidus seedling.
CopyrightAbdelkader Taleb
B. rigidus seedling.
SeedlingB. rigidus seedling.Abdelkader Taleb
B. rigidus infestation in a wheat crop.
TitleInfestation
CaptionB. rigidus infestation in a wheat crop.
CopyrightAbdelkader Taleb
B. rigidus infestation in a wheat crop.
InfestationB. rigidus infestation in a wheat crop.Abdelkader Taleb
B. rigidus infestation in a wheat crop.
TitleInfestation
CaptionB. rigidus infestation in a wheat crop.
CopyrightAbdelkader Taleb
B. rigidus infestation in a wheat crop.
InfestationB. rigidus infestation in a wheat crop.Abdelkader Taleb

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bromus rigidus Roth

Preferred Common Name

  • ripgut brome

Other Scientific Names

  • Anisantha diandra subsp. rigida (Roth) Tsvelev
  • Anisantha rigida (Roth) Hyl.
  • Bromus diandrus subsp. rigidus (Roth) Laínz
  • Bromus diandrus var. rigidus (Roth) Sales
  • Bromus maximus Desf.
  • Bromus villosus Forssk.

International Common Names

  • English: bronchograss; great brome; lesser bromegrass; rigid brome; ripgut bromegrass
  • Spanish: barba de macho
  • French: brome rigide
  • Portuguese: espadana; fura-capa

Local Common Names

  • Finland: villakattara
  • France: brome rougeatre
  • Germany: Steife Trespe
  • Italy: forasacco purpureo
  • Japan: higenagasuzumenochahiki

EPPO code

  • BRORI (Bromus rigidus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Bromus
  •                                 Species: Bromus rigidus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The synonym Anisantha rigida (Roth) Hyl. has been used until quite recently in Europe (e.g. Stace, 1991), this genus name being applied to species otherwise included in Bromus sect. Genea Dumort., differing from Bromus sensu stricto in having spikelets almost straight-sided, widening towards the top, rather than ovate to lanceolate, and having glumes with only one to three veins.

Bromus rigidus and B. diandrus are very closely related. In the USA, they are considered as one species. B. rigidus is treated as a subspecies of B. diandrus by Tsvelev (1984) (but in the genus Anisantha, as A. diandra subsp. rigida) and O'Connor (1990). A modern re-assessment of the taxonomy and nomenclature of the annual taxa within the mainly Mediterranean/southwestern Asiatic Bromus section Genea is given by Sales (1993) in which B. sterilis, B. diandrus and B. rigidus are considered as varieties of one species while recognizing that they have often been treated as separate species in recent floras. For the purposes of this Compendium, these three taxa are covered by separate species datasheets.

Description

Top of page B. rigidus is an annual plant, 15-55 cm high. Pubescent stem; wide leaves with sparse hairs; ligule prominent, torn or membranous. Panicle erect, compact and 90-150 mm long in the short-awned biotype, 110-210 mm in the long-awned biotype. Spikelet branches shorter than spikelets. Spikelets 25-30 mm long with four to five florets. Glumes unequal. Lemmas 22-25 mm with dorsal awn 29-38 mm in the short-awned biotype, 50-78 mm in the long-awned biotype (Clapham et al., 1952; Maire, 1955; Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000; Weiller et al., 2004). The flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by wind and cleistogamy. The plant is self-fertile.

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Grass / sedge
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of page The native range was indicated by Maire (1955) as the Mediterranean region and Eurasia. Native records are based on USDA-ARS (2004; as Bromus diandrus var. rigidus) and Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004). Because B. rigidus is not normally distinguished from B. diandrus in the USA, there are few records that can be specifically attributed to B. rigidus.

B. diandrus and other awned Bromus spp. were widespread weeds in Australia by the mid-1800s, but it was not until 1986 that B. rigidus was reported (Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000). It is widely distributed across southern Australia, often growing unrecognized in association with B. diandrus (Kon and Blacklow, 1988). In the eastern part of its range in Australia there appears to be a continuum between typical B. diandrus and B. rigidus types (Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IsraelPresentNativePost , 1933; Cooper and Moerkerk , 2000
JapanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Hitchcock , 1944; Holmgren and Holmgren , 1977; Koyama , 1987; Kon and Blacklow , 1989; Arnold and de Wet , 1993
JordanPresentNative Invasive Cooper and Moerkerk , 2000
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroducedCooper and Moerkerk , 2000
SyriaPresentNative Invasive Cooper and Moerkerk , 2000
ThailandPresentIntroducedJahandiez and Maire , 1931; Maire , 1955
TurkeyPresentNativeJahandiez and Maire , 1931; Maire , 1955; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004

Africa

AlgeriaWidespreadNative Invasive Jahandiez and Maire , 1931; Maire , 1955; Quezél and Santa , 1963; Fenni and et al. , 2001
EgyptPresentIntroduced Invasive Jahandiez and Maire , 1931; Maire , 1955; Cooper and Moerkerk , 2000
LibyaPresentNative Not invasive Jahandiez and Maire , 1931; Maire , 1955; Ali et al., 1989
MoroccoPresentNative Not invasive Jahandiez and Maire , 1931; Maire , 1955; Taleb , 1997; Tanji , 2000; Hamal and et al. , 2001; Valdes and et al. , 2002
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Hitchcock , 1944; Holmgren and Holmgren , 1977; Arnold and de Wet , 1993
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentNativeScholz and Böcker , 1996
TunisiaPresentNative Invasive Jahandiez and Maire , 1931; Maire , 1955; USDA-ARS, 2004

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Hitchcock , 1944; Holmgren and Holmgren , 1977; Arnold and de Wet , 1993
MexicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Hitchcock , 1944; Holmgren and Holmgren , 1977; Arnold and de Wet , 1993
USAPresentIntroducedHitchcock , 1950; CalEPPC, 1999
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedJain , 1982
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedHitchcock , 1950; CalEPPC, 1999
-OregonPresentIntroducedHitchcock , 1950; CalEPPC, 1999

Central America and Caribbean

British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Gleason and Cronquist , 1991

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1979

Europe

CyprusPresentNativeOsorio-Tafall and Seraphim , 1973; Meikle , 1985; Papastylianou , 1990; Cooper and Moerkerk , 2000
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004
FrancePresentNativeJahandiez and Maire , 1931; Maire , 1955; Guinochet and Vilmorin , 1984; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004
-CorsicaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
GreecePresentNativeCooper and Moerkerk , 2000; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004
-CretePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
HungaryPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
ItalyPresentNativeJahandiez and Maire , 1931; Maire , 1955; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004
-SardiniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
-SicilyPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
PortugalPresentNativeJahandiez and Maire , 1931; Maire , 1955; Lozano and Rivas Ponse , 1993; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004
-AzoresPresentNativeJahandiez and Maire , 1931; Maire , 1955; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004
-MadeiraPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
RomaniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
SpainPresentNativeJahandiez and Maire , 1931; Maire , 1955; Lozano and Rivas Ponse , 1993; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004
-Balearic IslandsPresentNativeJahandiez and Maire , 1931; Maire , 1955; Lozano and Rivas Ponse , 1993; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Gill and Carstairs , 1988; Kon and Blacklow , 1989
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedKon and Blacklow , 1988; Kon and Blacklow , 1990; Leys , 1990; Cooper and Moerkerk , 2000
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedCooper and Moerkerk , 2000
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedGill and Carstairs , 1988; Gill and Bowran , 1990; Cheam and et al. , 1992; Cooper and Moerkerk , 2000
New ZealandPresentIntroducedCooper and Moerkerk , 2000

Habitat

Top of page In its native area, B. rigidus is mainly a plant of roadsides, waste places and sand dunes but it has also recently become a weed of shallowly cultivated crop land in both its native and introduced range. B. rigidus is most common in areas with a Mediterranean climate of mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers (Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000). It requires well-drained soil and can tolerate drought. It can grow in nutritionally poor soil but does not favour shade. This species can tolerate strong winds but not maritime exposure.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page B. rigidus is considered to be a noxious weed in agricultural and horticultural crops in the Mediterranean area (Taleb, 1997; Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000; Fenni, 2001; Hamal et al., 2001). The main crops affected are wheat, barley and crops in rotation with cereals (sugarbeet, sunflower, chickpea, faba bean and lentil) (Taleb, 1997).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Genetics

The chromosome number is 2n = 42 (Esnault and Huon, 1987). This compares with the very similar B. diandrus which is 2n = 56 (Kon and Blacklow, 1988).

Physiology and Phenology

Ungerminated seeds can remain viable in the surface soil for 2-3 years. Establishment is more rapid and uniform when seeds are incorporated into the soil but can be protracted when seeds emerge from variable depths of burial or have been left on the soil surface. Bromus spp. seeds germinated and emerged at a soil depth of 15 cm, but greater depths resulted in germination, but no emergence (Hamal et al., 1998).

Plant densities of Bromus species (including B. rigidus) in Morocco varied from 330 to 661 plants/m², with a maximum height of 102 cm and a leaf area index of 6. The net daily assimilation rate was 4 g/m² and daily growth rates varied from 3.2 to 7.7 g/m². Nitrogen content of leaves varied from 4.1 to 3.8% and the total protein content of seeds was 10.9%. The weight of 1000 kernels varied from 20 to 24 g (Hamal et al., 1998).

Reproductive Biology

B. rigidus germinates, grows and produces seeds during the winter, spring and early summer. In Australia, B. rigidus matured earlier than the similar species B. diandrus, but there was high genetic variation in the time of maturity of both species (Kon and Blacklow, 1988). Seed production can range from 600 to over 3000 seeds per plant (Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000) and 63-786 kg/ha (Hamal, 1993). The viability of stored seeds at 10°C was 38 months. Good germination of seeds stored for up to 6 years was observed in the dark at 20, 25 and 30°C (Fenni, 1995).

For further detail on the biology of B. rigidus (and B. diandrus), refer to Groves et al. (1995).

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall250mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Winter

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Thesium humile var. maritima (Santalaceae) is a hemiparasite which attaches to a wide range of host plants, including B. rigidus (Abou-Raya et al., 1976).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page In general, propagation is by seed. Long-distance dispersal could occur by contamination of crop seeds and forages, attachment to animals or transport in ship ballast (Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000).

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
True seeds (inc. grain) seeds Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Positive
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) Positive
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page B. rigidus is directly causing serious problems in cereal crops, with yield losses varying from 40 to 80% in Algeria and Morocco (Hamal, 1993). In Australia, B. rigidus and the closely related B. diandrus compete strongly with wheat. A density of 100 plants/m² of B. diandrus decreases wheat yield by 30% (Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000) and it is thought that B. rigidus is equally competitive.

In addition, Bromus species can host cereal diseases and are contaminants of grain and wool and they damage animal hides. In pastures, the sharply pointed base of the 'seeds' penetrate eyes, mouth and feet of animals and working dogs (Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000), hence the name 'ripgut brome'.

Threatened Species

Top of page
Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Poa mannii (Mann's bluegrass)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010a
Schiedea apokremnos (Kauai schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010b

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition
  • Pest and disease transmission
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page All Bromus species are very similar at the seedling and vegetative stages. B. rigidus is particularly difficult to distinguish from B. diandrus at all development stages (Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000). It differs from B. diandrus in having shorter, sparser hairs on leaf laminae and more compact and erect panicles with shorter spikelet branches. In B. rigidus, the abscission scars on the rachillae are elliptical and the lemma calluses are elongated (>1 mm), whereas in B. diandrus, these characters were circular and short <1 mm) (Kon and Blacklow, 1988; Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000).

Prevention and Control

Top of page Mechanical Control

Deep tillage decreased B. rigidus germination (Hamal et al., 2001), whereas shallow tillage increased seedling emergence and subsequent seedbank decline (Gleichsner and Appleby, 1989).

Chemical Control

Good to moderate efficacy was obtained with sulfosulfuron under greenhouse and field conditions (Tanji, 2001). In Australia, incorporation of metribuzin alone or mixed with pendimethalin at the time of sowing gave reliable control of B. rigidus (Gill and Bowran, 1990). In Morocco, metribuzin also gave good to excellent control of B. rigidus (Saffour and Bouhache, 1996; Hamal et al., 1998); sulfosulfuron is registered for Bromus control and is applied post emergence giving excellent selectivity in wheat fields (Hamal et al., 2000).

A short-awned ecotype of B. rigidus from Western Australia had 30% residual innate dormancy and this, together with the earlier maturity of ecotypes of B. rigidus, could make it more difficult to control than B. diandrus when both species coexist in the field (Kon and Blacklow, 1988).

References

Top of page

Abou-Raya MA, El-Sharkawy MA, Garaboli FR, 1977. Observations on the parasitic behaviour of Thesium Vahl. (Santalaceae). (a) hosts and mode of attachment of haustorial structure. Comptes Rendus du Ve Colloque International sur l'Ecologie et la Biologie des Mauvaises Herbes, Dijon, 1976., 367-376

Ali SI, Jafri SMH, El Gadi A, 1989. Flora of Libya. Tripoli, Libya: Al Faateh University.

Arnold TH, de Wet BC, 1993. Plants of southern Africa: names and distribution. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa, No. 62. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

CalEPPC, 1999. Exotic pest plant list. California Exotic Pest Plant Council, USA. http://www.caleppc.org/info/plantlist.html.

Cheam AH, Gill G, Zaicou C, 1992. Managing brome grass [Bromus diandrus and B. rigidus] in the wheat:lupin [Lupinus sp.] rotation. Journal of Agriculture, Western Australia, 33(3):95-99

Clapham AR, Tutin TG, Warburg EF, eds, 1952. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Cooper J, Moerkerk M, 2000. Bromus diandrus, Bromus rigidus. Weed ID/ Management. Australia. http://weedman.horsham.net.au/weeds/bromus_spp/bromus.htm.

Davis PH, 1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. Edinburgh, UK: University Press.

Esnault MA, Huon A, 1987. Morphological and caryological studies on Bromus rigidus and Bromus diandrus Roth: taxonomic relations. Bulletin de la Societe Botanique de France, Lettres Botaniques, 134(3):299-304

Fenni M, 1995. Seed longevity of Bromus rubens L. and Bromus rigidus Roth. Brighton crop protection conference: weeds. Proceedings of an international conference, Brighton, UK, 20-23 November 1995., Vol. 2:775-780; 9 ref.

Fenni M, Maillet J, Shakir AN, 2001. Floristic and agronomic aspects of cereal weeds in the Constantine high plains. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 66(2b):797-801; 12 ref.

Gibbs Russel GE, Watson L, Koekemoer M, Smook L, Barker NP, Anderson HM, Dallwitz MJ, 1955. Grasses of Southern Africa. Memoirs of the Botanical Society of Southern Africa No.58. South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

Gill GS, Bowran DG, 1990. Tolerance of wheat cultivars to metribuzin and implications for the control of Bromus diandrus and B. rigidus in Western Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 30(3):373-378

Gill GS, Carstairs SA, 1988. Morphological, cytological and ecological discrimination of Bromus rigidus from Bromus diandrus. Weed Research, UK, 28(5):399-405

Gleason HA, Cronquist A, 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Second edition. New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden.

Gleichsner JA, Appleby AP, 1989. Effect of depth and duration of seed burial on ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus). Weed Science, 37(1):68-72

Groves RH, Shepherd RCH, Richardson RG, 1995. The biology of Australian weeds - volume 1. The biology of Australian weeds - volume 1., vi + 314 pp.; [ref. at ends of chapters].

Guinochet M, Vilmorin R de, 1984. Flore de France, Vols 1-5. Paris, France: Editions du CNRS.

Hamal A, 1993. Concurrence entre le blé dur (Triticum durum Desf.) et une communauté d’adventices dominée par le brome (Bromus rigidus Roth.) dans le Saïs (Maroc). Mémoire de 3ème Cycle, Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, Rabat, Maroc.

Hamal A, Benbella M, Msatef Y, Bouhache M, Rzozi SB, 1998. Biological aspects of Bromus rigidus Roth, a weed of cereals in Morocco. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 63(3a):813-815.

Hamal A, Benbella M, Rzozi SB, Bouhache M, Msatef Y, 2001. Cartography and geographical spread of the weedy bromes (Bromus spp.) of cereals in the Sais area of Morocco. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 66(2b):761-768.

Hamal A, Benbella M, Rzozi SB, Bouhache M, Msatef Y, Bulcke R, 2000. Sulfosulfuron used for chemical control of Bromus rigidus in wheat in the Sais area of Morocco. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 65(2a):59-67; 6 ref.

Hitchcock A, 1944. Poaceae. In: Abrams L, ed. Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States. 1. Ophioglossaceae to Aristolochiaceae. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 103-255.

Hitchcock S, 1950. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. New York, USA: Dover Publications Inc.

Holm L, Pancho J, Herberger J, Plucknett D, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Holmgren A, Holmgren N, 1977. Poaceae. In Cronquist et al., eds. Intermountain Flora. Volume 6. The monocotyledons. New York, USA: Botanical Garden and Columbia University Press, 175-462.

Hussey BMJ, Keighery GJ, Coussens RD, Dodd J, Lloyd SG, 1997. Western weeds: A Guide of the Weeds of Western Australia. Perth, Australia: Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, 44-47.

Jahandiez E, Maire R, 1931. Catalogue des Plantes du Maroc. Algiers, Morocco: Minerva.

Jain SK, 1982. Variation and adaptive role of seed dormancy in some annual grassland species. Botanical Gazette, 143(1):101-106

Kon KF, Blacklow WM, 1988. Identification, distribution and population variability of great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth) and rigid brome (Bromus rigidus Roth). Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 39(6):1039-1050

Kon KF, Blacklow WM, 1989. The biology of Australian weeds 19. Bromus diandrus Roth and B. rigidus Roth. Plant Protection Quarterly, 4(2):51-60

Kon KF, Blacklow WM, 1990. Polymorphism, outcrossing and polyploidy in Bromus diandrus and B. rigidus. Australian Journal of Botany, 38(6):609-618

Koyama T, 1987. Grasses of Japan and its neighbouring regions. An identification manual, Kodansha, Tokyo.

Leys AR, 1990. Control of annual grasses in pastures of southern Australia and implications for agriculture. Proceeding of the 9th Australian Weeds Conference, 354-364

Lozano CC, Rivas Ponse A, 1993. Algunas consideraciones sobre la especies Bromus rigidus Roth en la Península Ibérica y Baleares. Bot. Complutensis [Madrid], 18:93-104.

Maire R, 1955. Flore de l’Afrique du Nord. Volume III, Encyclopédie Biologique, Lechevalier éditeur, Paris VI.

Meikle RD, 1985. Flora of Cyprus. Volume Two. 1985, xiii + 1136 (833 1970) pp.; many ref.

Mouterde P, 1984. Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie. In: Charpin A, Greuter W, Dar El Machreq. Beyrouth: Editions De L' Imprimerie Catholique.

O’Connor P, 1990. Poaceae. In: Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, eds. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai`i. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press & Bishop Museum Press, 1481-1604.

Osorio-Tafall BF, Seraphim GM, 1973. List of the vascular plants of Cyprus. Nicosia, Cyprus: Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

Papastylianou I, 1990. Effect of stubble management on barley yields and soil nutrients in a continuous barley cropping system in Cyprus. Technical Bulletin - Cyprus Agricultural Research Institute, No. 114:10pp.

Paterson JG, 1992. Grasses in south Western Australia. Illustrations and descriptions of Bromus species. Department of Agriculture WA Bulletin 4210:34-35.

Post GE, 1933. Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinaï. JE Dinsmore, Beirut, Liban.

Quezél P, Santa S, 1963. Nouvelle Flore de l'Algerie. Éditions du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France.

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004. Flora Europaea Database. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, UK. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html.

Saffour K, Bouhache M, 1996. Possibility of using metribuzin in bromegrass control in soft wheat (Triticum aestivum). Al Awamia, 94:19-29; 16 ref.

Sales F, 1993. Taxonomy and nomenclature of Bromus sect. Genea. Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 50(1):1-31

Scholz H, Böcker R, 1996. Additions and notes to the grass flora (Poaceae) of the Canary Islands. Willdenowia, 25(2):571-582.

Smith P, 1980. Bromus. In: Tutin et al., eds. Flora Europaea. Volume 5. Alismataceae to Orchidaceae. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 182-189.

Stace C, 1991. New Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Taleb A, 1997. Le brome: monographie. Revue de l’AMM, 1(1):2-6.

Tanji A, 2000. Mauvaises herbes du blé et de l’orge dans le périmètre du Tadla. Al-Awamia, No.102:49-57.

Tanji A, 2001. Response of ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus) and foxtail brome (Bromus rubens) to MON 37500. Weed Technology, 15(4):642-646; 34 ref.

Tsvelev N, 1984. Grasses of the Soviet Union. Part 1. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Balkema, 1-568.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: 5-Year Review, Short Form Summary: Species Reviewed: Poa mannii (Mann's bluegrass). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 10 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Schiedea apokremnos (maolioli). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 16 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2004. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Valdes B, Rejdali M, Achhal-El kadmiri A, Jury SL, Montserrat JM, 2002. Checklist of Vascular Plants of N Morocco. Vol. 2. Madrid, Spain: Editions CSIC.

Valdes B, Talavera S, Fernadez-Galiano E, 1987. Flora Vascular de Andalucia Occidental, Vol. 3. Barcelona, Spain.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map