Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bromus madritensis
(compact brome)

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Datasheet

Bromus madritensis (compact brome)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bromus madritensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • compact brome
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bromus madritensis L.

Preferred Common Name

  • compact brome

Other Scientific Names

  • Anisantha madritensis (L.) Nevski
  • Festuca madritensis Desf.
  • Genea madritensis (L.) Dumort.

International Common Names

  • English: foxtail chess; Spanish brome; wall brome
  • French: brome de Madrid
  • Portuguese: espadana

Local Common Names

  • Finland: madridinkattara; nuokkukattara
  • Germany: Trespe, Mittelmeer-
  • Italy: forasacco dei muri

EPPO code

  • BROMA (Bromus madritensis)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Bromus
  •                                 Species: Bromus madritensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The synonym Anisantha madritensis (L.) Nevski has been used until quite recently in Europe (e.g., Stace, 1991), this genus name being applied to species otherwise included in Bromus sect. Genea Dumort., differing from Bromus sensu stricto in having spikelets almost straight-sided, widening towards the top, rather than ovate to lanceolate, and having glumes with only one to three veins.

Bromus madritensis and B. rubens are very closely related. They are treated as subspecies of B. madritensis by some systematists: the type species subsp. madritensis and red brome subsp. rubens (Wilken and Painter, 1993). Esnault (1984) described patterns of geographic variation in B. madritensis in Mediterranean Europe and northern Africa, providing evidence for intergradations between the two subspecies in their native ranges. Others treat them as distinct species (Kearney et al., 1960; Tutin et al., 1980; Welsh et al., 1987; Pavlik, 1995; Kartesz and Meacham, 1999; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004). For the purposes of this Compendium, data on B. madritensis and B. rubens are presented in separate species datasheets.

Description

Top of page B. madritensis is an annual; 15-45 cm tall with erect culms, unbranched above, 2-3 noded. Nodes glabrous; internodes hollow, glabrous, terete. Leaves alternate; ligules 1-3 mm long, lacerate; auricles absent; sheaths glabrous to soft-pubescent; blades linear, flat, 36-65 mm long, 1.5-4 mm wide, glabrous to soft-pubescent. Inflorescence an open to dense terminal panicle, 4-15 cm long. Spikelets 20-30 mm long, slightly compressed, composed of 3-8 florets, the glumes linear to narrowly lanceolate, the lower one 5-10 mm long, 1-nerved, the upper one 8-13 mm long, 3-nerved; lemmas 12-17 mm long, lanceolate, 3- to 5-nerved, the back keeled to rounded, the apex with a terminal awn 12-20 mm long and two lateral teeth 4-5 mm long. Disarticulating above the persistent glumes. Grain hairy at the tip, 8-12 mm long. Flowering from March to June. For further details see Hitchcock (1944), Maire (1955), Hubbard (1959), Munz (1959), Holmgren and Holmgren (1977), Smith (1980), Pavlik (1995), Wilken and Painter (1993), Weiller et al. (2005).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Grass / sedge
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

Top of page The native distribution shown in the country list is based on data from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004) and USDA-ARS (2004). In the USA, B. madritensis was established in California by 1848 (Frenkel, 1977) and appears to have been naturalized there by the 1890s (Maire, 1955; Burcham, 1957).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNativeCABI (Undated);
EgyptPresentNativeInvasiveCABI (Undated);
LibyaPresentNativeAli et al. (1989); CABI (Undated);
MoroccoPresentNativeCABI (Undated);
South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated);
TunisiaPresentNativeInvasiveCABI (Undated);

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2004)
GeorgiaPresentCABI (Undated);
IranPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2004)
IraqPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2004)
IsraelPresentNativeCABI (Undated);
JapanPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated);
JordanPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Original citation: Zohary and Feinbrun-Dothan (1966)
LebanonPresentNativeCABI (Undated);
Saudi ArabiaPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Original citation: Choudhary et al., 1981
SyriaPresentNativeCABI (Undated);
TurkeyPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); CABI (Undated);

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); USDA-ARS (2004)
BulgariaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); USDA-ARS (2004)
CyprusPresentCABI (Undated);
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); CABI (Undated);
FrancePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); CABI (Undated);
-CorsicaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); CABI (Undated);
GreecePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); CABI (Undated);
-CretePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); USDA-ARS (2004)
HungaryPresentCABI (Undated);
IrelandPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004)
ItalyPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); CABI (Undated);
-SardiniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); USDA-ARS (2004)
-SicilyPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); USDA-ARS (2004)
MaltaPresentNativeCABI (Undated);
PortugalPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); CABI (Undated);
-AzoresPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); CABI (Undated);
-MadeiraPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2004)
RomaniaPresentCABI (Undated);
SpainPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); CABI (Undated);
-Balearic IslandsPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); CABI (Undated);
-Canary IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2004)
UkrainePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); USDA-ARS (2004)
United KingdomPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004); CABI (Undated);

North America

British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveBONAP (1998); CABI (Undated);
CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated);
MexicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated);
United StatesPresentIntroduced1800InvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: Burcham (1957)
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated);
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced1848InvasiveCABI (Undated);
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: St John (1973)
-IdahoPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: St John (1973)
-MarylandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2004)
-MichiganPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2004)
-MississippiPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS (2004)
-NevadaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated);
-OregonPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: Pavlik (1995)
-TexasPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: St John (1973)
-UtahPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Hitchcock (1950)
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Hitchcock (1950)
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Pavlik (1995)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCABI (Undated);
New ZealandPresentIntroduced1871Forde and Edgar (1995)

South America

ChilePresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)

Habitat

Top of page The major species of the genus are native to the Mediterranean region and south-western Asia (Maire, 1955) where they occur from sea level to 1300 m on stony or sandy soils of cultivated fields and rangelands in arid to mesic shrub and steppe regions (Bor, 1968).

Where introduced, B. madritensis tends to occur in disturbed sites, roadsides, fallow fields and grazed pastures (Munz, 1959; Arnow, 1987; Wilken and Painter, 1993).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page B. madritensis is considered to be a noxious weed in agricultural and horticultural crops, including orchards and vineyards (Hamal et al., 2001). The main crops affected are wheat, barley and crops in rotation with cereals (sugarbeet, sunflower, faba bean, etc.; Taleb, 1997).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeMain
Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeMain
Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeMain
Triticum aestivum (wheat)PoaceaeMain
Triticum turgidum (durum wheat)PoaceaeMain
Vicia faba (faba bean)FabaceaeMain
Vitis (grape)VitaceaeMain

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Genetics

The chromosome number is 2n = 28 (Loon, 1974), the same as B. rubens.

Physiology and Phenology

B. madritensis germinates well under the winter temperature regime of southern California, USA (Ashby and Hellmers, 1955). Sunlight may enhance germination at higher temperatures.

The biology of B. madritensis is likely to be very similar to that of the closely related species B. rubens. More details can be found it the B. rubens datasheet.

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration08number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall250350mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Winter

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page There is little information in the literature on natural enemies of B. madritensis. However, Beuve and Lapierre (1992) indicated the susceptibility of B. madritensis to Barley yellow dwarf virus RPV strain (BYDV-RPV).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page In general, propagation is by seed. Short-distance dispersal is aided by wind, which blows seeds along the ground until they settle in eddies behind shrubs or rocks or in depressions in the ground. Long-distance dispersal of B. madritensis is accomplished by seeds that lodge in animal fur and in loosely woven clothing, or contaminate grain.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
True seeds (inc. grain) seeds Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Positive
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) Positive
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna None
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page Bromus species are contaminants of grain and wool, they damage animal hides and can host serious cereal diseases. In pastures, the seeds penetrate eyes, mouths and feet of animals and working dogs.

In Morocco, five species of Bromus (B. rigidus, B. rubens, B. sterilis, B. madritensis and B. mollis) are causing problems in wheat in the Sais area: 17% of fields were slightly infested (density of Bromus (Dbr) < 90 plants/m²), 61% were moderately infested (90 < Dbr < 290 plants/m²) and 22% were highly infested (Dbr > 400 plants/m²) (Hamal et al., 2001).

Although B. madritensis is sometimes grazed by livestock, it is not considered a good forage plant and is generally regarded as having no economic value (Bor, 1968). Dried florets become entangled in wool, reducing its value, and lodge in the digestive tracts of some livestock, sometimes causing death.

The importance of Bromus species has increased in some areas where the frequency of cropping has increased and other grasses have been controlled by herbicides.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Grindelia fraxinipratensis (ash meadows gumplant)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCalifornia; NevadaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007a
Pseudobahia bahiifolia (Hartweg's golden sunburst)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaCompetition - stranglingUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007b
Sibara filifolia (Santra Cruz Island Rockcress)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006
Sidalcea keckii (Keck's checker-mallow)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008
Speyeria callippe callippe (callippe silverspot butterfly)USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - strangling
  • Pest and disease transmission

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page B. madritensis can be confused with other species of the genus at the seedling stage, and particularly with B. rubens at all developmental stages. B. madritensis has glabrous to slightly pubescent sheaths and stems, and the inflorescences are slightly open and oblong to ovoid. B. rubens has pubescent sheaths and stems, and the inflorescence is dense and ovoid. Stace (1991) indicates that they also differ in lemma length (9-15 mm in R. rubens compared with 12-20 mm in B. madritensis) and in the number of sterile apical florets (at least three in B. rubens, only one to two in B. madritensis).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control

Livestock grazing may be used in lieu of hand pulling. Unfortunately, desirable native species may be eaten as well, and alterations to the soil caused by livestock may promote further establishment of B. madritensis

Mechanical Control

Removal of weeds, especially annuals, can be accomplished by hand-pulling or hoeing (Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987). Plants will not reach maturity if the seedlings are uprooted. This repetitive task is time consuming, especially since seeds of B. madritensis germinate from autumn to spring.

Chemical Control

Some details of chemical control are included in the datasheet on the closely related species B. rubens.

References

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Ali SI, Jafri SMH, El Gadi A, 1989. Flora of Libya. Tripoli, Libya: Al Faateh University.

Amme D, Pitschel BM, 1990. Restoration and management of California’s grassland habitats. In: Hughes HG, Bonnicksen TM, eds. Restoration `89: the new management challenge. Proceedings, 1st annual meeting of the Society for Ecological Restoration; 1989 January 16-20; Oakland, CA. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Arboretum, Society for Ecological Restoration, 532-542.

Arnold TH, de Wet BC, 1993. Plants of southern Africa: names and distribution. Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa, No. 62. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

Arnow L, 1987. Gramineae. In: Welsh et al., eds. A Utah Flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 9, 684-788.

Ashby WC, Hellmers H, 1955. Temperature requirements for germination in relation to wild-land seeding. Journal of Range Management, 8:80-83.

Barry WJ, 1972. The Central Valley Prairie. Vol 1. Sacramento, CA, USA: State of California, Department of Parks and Recreation.

Beatley JC, 1966. Ecological status of introduced brome grasses (Bromus spp.) in desert vegetation of southern Nevada. Ecology, 47(4):548-554.

Beuve M, Lapierre H, 1992. Resistance to RPV barley yellow dwarf virus in the genus Bromus. Canadian Journal of Botany, 70(1):32-37

BONAP, 1998. A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. A database interface. Provided by TAMU-BWG; Texas A & M Bioinformatics Working Group. Based on Biota of North America Program. http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm.

Bor NL, 1968. Gramineae Vol 9. In: Townsend CC, Guest E, Al-Kawi A, eds. Flora of Iraq.

Bouchard J, 1978. Flore Pratique de la Corse. Ed. 3. Bastia, Corsica: Société des Sciences Historiques et Naturelles de la Corse.

Brooks ML, 1999. Alien annual grasses and fire in the Mojave Desert. Madrono, 46(1):13-19.

Burcham L, 1957. California Range Land. Sacramento, CA, USA: Department of Natural Resources, 261 pp.

CalEPPC, 1999. Exotic pest plant list. California Exotic Pest Plant Council, USA. http://www.caleppc.org/info/plantlist.html.

Chaudhary SA, Parker C, Kasasian L, 1981. Weeds of Central, Southern and Eastern Arabian Peninsula. Tropical Pest Management, 27(2):181-190.

Davis PH, 1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. Edinburgh, UK: University Press.

Esnault M, 1984. Etudes sur la variabilite morphologique de Bromus madritensis. Phytomorphology, 34:91-99.

Forde MB, Edgar E, 1995. Checklist of pooid grasses naturalised in New Zealand. 3. Tribes Bromeae ad Brachypodieae. New Zealand Journal of Botany 33:35-42.

Franco J, Do Amara L, 1971. Nova Flora de Portugal, Vol. 1. Lisboa, Portugal.

Frenkel RE, 1977. Ruderal Vegetation Along Some California Roadsides. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press.

Gibbs Russel GE, Watson L, Koekemoer M, Smook L, Barker NP, Anderson HM, Dallwitz MJ, 1955. Grasses of Southern Africa. Memoirs of the Botanical Society of Southern Africa No.58. South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.

Gill GS, Bowran DG, 1990. Tolerance of wheat cultivars to metribuzin and implications for the control of Bromus diandrus and B. rigidus in Western Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 30(3):373-378

Gleason HA, Cronquist A, 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. Second edition. New York, USA: The New York Botanical Garden.

Guinochet M, Vilmorin R de, 1984. Flore de France, Vols 1-5. Paris, France: Editions du CNRS.

Hamal A, Benbella M, Rzozi SB, Bouhache M, Msatef Y, 2001. Cartography and geographical spread of the weedy bromes (Bromus spp.) of cereals in the Sais area of Morocco. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 66(2b):761-768.

Hammouda M, Bakr Z, 1969. Some aspects of germination of desert seeds. Phyton, 13:183-201.

Hickman JC, 1993. The Jepson manual: higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press, 1400 pp.

Hitchcock A, 1944. Poaceae. In: Abrams L, ed. Illustrated Flora of the Pacific States. 1. Ophioglossaceae to Aristolochiaceae. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press, 103-255.

Hitchcock S, 1950. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. New York, USA: Dover Publications Inc.

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Holmgren A, Holmgren N, 1977. Poaceae. In Cronquist et al., eds. Intermountain Flora. Volume 6. The monocotyledons. New York, USA: Botanical Garden and Columbia University Press, 175-462.

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Jain SK, 1982. Variation and adaptive role of seed dormancy in some annual grassland species. Botanical Gazette, 143(1):101-106

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Pavlik LE, 1995. Bromus L. of North America. Victoria, BC, Canada: Royal British Columbia Museum, 160.

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Stace C, 1991. New Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Stace C, 1997. New flora of the British Isles. Second edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Strid A, 1991. The Mountain Flora of Greece. Edinburgh, UK; Edinburgh University Press.

Strid A, Tan K, 1997. Flora Hellenica, Vol. 1. Koenigstein, Germany; Koeltz Scientific Books.

Taleb A, 1997. Le brome: monographie. Revue de l’AMM, 1(1):2-6.

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Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, et al, 1980. Flora Europaea. Vol. 5: Alismataceae to Orchidaceae (Monocotyledones) Cambridge, UK: University Press.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2006. In: Sibara filifolia (Santa Cruz Island Rockcress). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 24 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. In: Ash Meadows Gumplant (Grindelia fraxino-pratensis). Five-year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 22 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1865.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. In: Pseudobahia bahiifolia (Hartweg's golden sunburst), Pseudobahia peirsonii (San Joaquin adobe sunburst). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 23 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. In: Keck's Checkermallow (Sidalcea keckii). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 13 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: Callippe Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria callippe callippe). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 29 pp.

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Valdes B, Rejdali M, Achhal-El kadmiri A, Jury SL, Montserrat JM, 2002. Checklist of Vascular Plants of N Morocco. Vol. 2. Madrid, Spain: Editions CSIC.

Valdes B, Talavera S, Fernadez-Galiano E, 1987. Flora Vascular de Andalucia Occidental, Vol. 3. Barcelona, Spain.

Watson S, 1880. Geological Survey of California. Botany. Volume 2. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: John Wilson, University Press.

Welsh SL, Atwood ND, Goodrich S, Higgins LC, 1987. A Utah Flora. Provo, Utah, USA: Brigham Young University, The Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9.

Wilken D, Painter E, 1993. Bromus. In: Hickman JC, ed. The Jepson Manual: Vascular Plants of California. Berkeley, USA: University of California Press, 1239-1243.

Zohary M, Feinbrun-Dothan N, 1966. Flora Palaestina. Jerusalem, Israel: Academy for Science and Humanities.

Distribution References

Ali SI, Jafri SMH, El Gadi A, 1989. Flora of Libya., Tripoli, Libya: Al Faateh University.

BONAP, 1998. A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. In: A database interface. Provided by TAMU-BWG; Texas A & M Bioinformatics Working Group. Based on Biota of North America Program, http://www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/b98/check98.htm

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Forde M B, Edgar E, 1995. Checklist of pooid grasses naturalised in New Zealand. 3. Tribes Bromeae and Brachypodieae. New Zealand Journal of Botany. 33 (1), 35-42.

Holm L, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons. xlix + 391 pp.

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004. Flora Europaea Database., Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html

USDA-ARS, 2004. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2004. The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

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