Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Bromus diandrus
(great brome)

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Datasheet

Bromus diandrus (great brome)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 12 June 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Bromus diandrus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • great brome
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Bromus diandrus (great brome); ripening seedheads. Lower Kula Rd Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.
TitleRipening seedheads
CaptionBromus diandrus (great brome); ripening seedheads. Lower Kula Rd Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bromus diandrus (great brome); ripening seedheads. Lower Kula Rd Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.
Ripening seedheadsBromus diandrus (great brome); ripening seedheads. Lower Kula Rd Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bromus diandrus (great brome); ripening seedheads. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2011.
TitleRipening seedheads
CaptionBromus diandrus (great brome); ripening seedheads. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2011.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bromus diandrus (great brome); ripening seedheads. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2011.
Ripening seedheadsBromus diandrus (great brome); ripening seedheads. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2011.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bromus diandrus (great brome); seeding habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2011.
TitleSeeding habit
CaptionBromus diandrus (great brome); seeding habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2011.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bromus diandrus (great brome); seeding habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2011.
Seeding habitBromus diandrus (great brome); seeding habit. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2011.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Bromus diandrus (grerat brome); ventral view of the sharply pointed base of the floret. Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
TitleFloret
CaptionBromus diandrus (grerat brome); ventral view of the sharply pointed base of the floret. Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
Copyright©D. Walters & C. Southwick/USDA/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Bromus diandrus (grerat brome); ventral view of the sharply pointed base of the floret. Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
FloretBromus diandrus (grerat brome); ventral view of the sharply pointed base of the floret. Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.©D. Walters & C. Southwick/USDA/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Bromus diandrus Roth

Preferred Common Name

  • great brome

Other Scientific Names

  • Anisantha diandra (Roth) Tutin
  • Bromus gussonei Parl.
  • Bromus gussonii Parl.
  • Bromus maximus var. gussonei (Parl.) Parl.
  • Bromus rigidus subsp. gussonei (Parl.) Maire
  • Bromus rigidus var. gussonei (Parl.) Coss. & Durieu

International Common Names

  • English: giant brome; great bromegrass
  • Spanish: bromo
  • French: brome raide
  • Portuguese: espigao

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Diandrus-Trespe; Grosse Trespe
  • Italy: forasacco di Gussone

EPPO code

  • BRODI (Bromus diandrus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Bromus
  •                                 Species: Bromus diandrus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The synonym Anisantha diandra has been used until quite recently in Europe (e.g., Stace, 1991), this genus name being applied to species otherwise included in Bromus section Genea, differing from Bromus sensu stricto in having spikelets almost straight-sided, widening towards the top, rather than ovate to lanceolate, and having glumes with only one to three veins.

Bromus diandrus and B. rigidus are very closely related. In the USA, they are considered as one species. B. rigidus is treated as a subspecies of B. diandrus by Tsvelev (1984) (but in the genus Anisantha, as A. diandra subsp. rigida) and O'Connor (1990). A modern re-assessment of the taxonomy and nomenclature of the annual taxa within the mainly Mediterranean/southwestern Asiatic Bromus section Genea is given by Sales (1993) in which B. sterilis, B. diandrus and B. rigidus are considered as varieties of one species while recognizing that they have often been treated as separate species in recent floras. For the purposes of this Compendium, these three taxa are covered by separate species datasheets.

Description

Top of page B. diandrus is an annual plant, 30-90 cm high. Stout stem, hairy below panicle. Leaves 10 mm wide, rough with some long hairs; ligule prominent, 3-6 mm long, membranous, jagged tipped. Panicle loose, nodding, 15-20 cm long, pale green becoming purple-red. Spikelet branches longer than spikelets. Spikelets 25-40 mm long, 5-8 flowered. Glumes unequal, 1- to 3-nerved. Lemmas 20-35 mm long, finely 2-toothed with awn 35-60 mm long. Disarticulating above the glumes. Grain 9-11 mm long, hairy at the tip. Awn length 35-55 mm (Clapham et al., 1952; Hubbard, 1959; Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000; Weiller et al., 2005).

Distribution

Top of page B. diandrus is indigenous to the Mediterranean region (Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000). Native records are based on USDA-ARS (2004; as Bromus diandrus var. diandrus) and Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2004).

B. diandrus and other awned Bromus spp. were widespread weeds in Australia by the mid-1800s, but it was not until 1986 that B. rigidus was reported (Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000). In Australia there appears to be a continuum between typical B. diandrus and B. rigidus types (Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
IndiaRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Bor, 1960
IsraelPresentNativeCooper and Moerkerk, 2000; USDA-ARS, 2004
JapanPresentIntroducedCooper and Moerkerk, 2000
JordanPresentNativeCooper and Moerkerk, 2000; USDA-ARS, 2004
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroducedCooper and Moerkerk, 2000
LebanonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
Saudi ArabiaRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Hosni and Hegazy, 1996
SyriaPresentNativeCooper and Moerkerk, 2000; USDA-ARS, 2004
TurkeyPresentNativeCooper and Moerkerk, 2000; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
UzbekistanPresentNativeCooper and Moerkerk, 2000

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
EgyptPresentNativeCooper and Moerkerk, 2000; USDA-ARS, 2004
KenyaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Clayton, 1970
LibyaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
MoroccoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
South AfricaPresentIntroducedCooper and Moerkerk, 2000
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
TanzaniaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Clayton, 1970
TunisiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004

North America

MexicoPresentMejía-Saulés et al., 2002
USAPresentIntroducedCooper and Moerkerk, 2000
-CaliforniaPresentNativeHoopes and Hall, 2002
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Not invasive Holm et al., 1979

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004
CyprusPresentNativeCooper and Moerkerk, 2000; USDA-ARS, 2004
FrancePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
-CorsicaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
GreecePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
-CretePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
ItalyPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
-SardiniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
-SicilyPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
MaltaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
PortugalPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
-AzoresPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
-MadeiraPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2004
SpainPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
-Balearic IslandsPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004
UKPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004
UkrainePresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004; USDA-ARS, 2004

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedWeiller et al., 1995
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedCooper and Moerkerk, 2000
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedWeiller et al., 1995; Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000
-TasmaniaPresentIntroducedWeiller et al., 1995
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedWeiller et al., 1995
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedWeiller et al., 1995; Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000
New ZealandPresentIntroducedCooper and Moerkerk, 2000

Habitat

Top of page B. diandrus is a mainly a plant of waste places and fallow land but also occurs in shallowly tilled crop land. It tolerates a wide range of climates and grows on acidic or alkaline, sandy or loamy soils (Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000).

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Genetics

The chromosome number is 2n = 56 (Kon and Blacklow, 1988).

Reproductive Biology

B. diandrus germinates, grows and produces seeds during the winter, spring and early summer. In Australia, the closely related species B. rigidus matured earlier than B. diandrus, but there was high genetic variation in the time of maturity of both species (Kon and Blacklow, 1988). Seed production can range from 600 to over 3000 seeds per plant (Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000).

For more details of Bromus biology, see the datasheet on B. rigidus. For further detail on the biology of B. diandrus (and B. rigidus) refer to Groves et al. (1995).

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Studies have been conducted in the UK to investigate the potential of Pyrenophora chaetomioides (Lawrie et al., 1998) and P. semeniperda (Medd and Campbell, 2005) as mycoherbicides for B. diandrus and other Bromus spp.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page In general, propagation is by seed. Long-distance dispersal could occur by contamination of crop seeds and forages, attachment to animals or transport in ship ballast (Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
True seeds (inc. grain) seeds Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) None
Crop production None
Environment (generally) None
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna None
Native flora None
Rare/protected species None
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Impact

Top of page In Australia, B. diandrus competes strongly with wheat. A density of 100 plants/m² of B. diandrus decreases wheat yield by 30% (Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000). B. diandrus is also becoming an increasing problem in arable crops in New Zealand where moderate infestations may reduce grain yields by 25-30% (Dastgeib et al., 2003).

In addition, Bromus species can host cereal diseases and are contaminants of grain and wool and they damage animal hides. In pastures, the seeds penetrate eyes, mouths and feet of animals and working dogs (Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Brodiaea pallida (Chinese Camp brodiaea)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012
Chorizanthe pungens (Monterey spineflower)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009b
Dipodomys stephensi (Stephens' kangaroo rat)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered)CaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1997
Lithophragma maximum (San Clemente Island woodland-star)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 1984; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007
Oenothera deltoides subsp. howellii (Antioch Dunes evening-primrose)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008b
Phacelia insularis var. insularis (island phacelia)NatureServe NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008a
Speyeria callippe callippe (callippe silverspot butterfly)USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesCaliforniaEcosystem change / habitat alterationUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009a
Verbesina dissita (big-leaved crownbeard)National list(s) National list(s); USA ESA listing as threatened species USA ESA listing as threatened speciesCaliforniaCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition
  • Pest and disease transmission
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page All Bromus species are very similar at the seedling and vegetative stages. B. diandrus is particularly difficult to distinguish from B. rigidus at all development stages (Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000). B. rigidus differs from B. diandrus in having shorter, sparser hairs on leaf laminae and more compact and erect panicles with shorter spikelet branches. In B. rigidus, the abscission scars on the rachillae are elliptical and the lemma calluses are elongated (>1 mm), whereas in B. diandrus, these characters were circular and short <1 mm) (Kon and Blacklow, 1988; Cooper and Moerkerk, 2000).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

A range of herbicide treatments has been successfully used for control of B. diandrus in Spain, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. In cereals, these include pre-emergence applications of cyanazine + terbuthylazine, chlorsulfuron + terbuthylazine, and metribuzin (Dastgeib et al., 2003) though some tolerance of metribuzin is reported from Spain (Villaroya et al., 2001); or post-emergence applications of clethodim, haloxyfop (Nott, 2002); or sulfosulfuron (Agenbag and Crous, 1999). In legumes, post-emergence treatments include fluazifop, quizalofop (le Roux et al., 1995) and simazine + paraquat (Leys and Plater, 1993).

References

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Agenbag GA, Crous R, 1999. Bromus diandrus Roth. control with MON 37532 in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). 1. Time of application and dosage rate. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 16(3):118-122; 5 ref.

Bor NL, 1960. The Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan (Excluding Bambusae). Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.

Clapham AR, Tutin TG, Warburg EF, eds, 1952. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Clayton WD, 1970. Gramineae (Part 1). In: Milne-Redhead E, Polhill RM, eds. Flora of Tropical East Africa. London, UK: Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.

Cooper J, Moerkerk M, 2000. Bromus diandrus, Bromus rigidus. Weed ID/ Management. Australia. http://weedman.horsham.net.au/weeds/bromus_spp/bromus.htm.

Dastgeib F, Rolston MP, Archie WJ, 2003. Chemical control of brome grasses (Bromus spp.) in cereals. Proceedings of a conference, Christchurch, New Zealand, 12-14 August 2003. New Zealand Plant Protection, 56:227-232.

Groves RH, Shepherd RCH, Richardson RG, 1995. The biology of Australian weeds - volume 1. The biology of Australian weeds - volume 1., vi + 314 pp.; [ref. at ends of chapters].

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Hoopes MF, Hall LM, 2002. Edaphic factors and competition affect pattern formation and invasion in a California grassland. Ecological Applications, 12(1):24-39.

Hosni HA, Hegazy AK, 1996. Contribution to the flora of Asir, Saudi Arabia. Candollea, 51(1):169-202; 14 ref.

Hubbard CE, 1959. Grasses. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books.

INRA, 2001. HYPPA. Hypermedia for Plant Protection - Weeds. Dijon, France: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. http://www.dijon.inra.fr/malherbo/hyppa/hyppa-a/hyppa_a.htm.

Kon KF, Blacklow WM, 1988. Identification, distribution and population variability of great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth) and rigid brome (Bromus rigidus Roth). Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 39(6):1039-1050

Lawrie J, Greaves MP, Down VM, 1998. Drechslera sp. (Pyrenophora chaetomioides (Speg.)), a potential biocontrol agent for Bromus sterilis and other Bromus spp. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 8(4):479-484.

le Roux DJ, Agenbag GA, Mills LJ, 1995. Effect of grass weed control in legume-based annual pastures on yield potential of the succeeding wheat crop. Applied Plant Science, 9(2):39-42.

Leys A, Plater B, 1993. Simazine mixtures for control of annual grasses in pastures. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 33(3):319-326

Medd RW, Campbell HA, 2005. Grass seed infection following inundation with Pyrenophora semeniperda. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 15(1):21-36.

Mejía-Saulés T, Castillo-Campos G, Avendaño Reyes S, 2002. New reports of Poaceae in the rocky substratum of municipality of Perote, Veracruz, Mexico. Rhodora, 104(919):304-308.

Nott P, 2002. A low-rate spike of Verdict 520 with Select Herbicide improves control of key grass weeds. 13th Australian Weeds Conference: weeds "threats now and forever?", Sheraton Perth Hotel, Perth, Western Australia, 8-13 September 2002: papers and proceedings, 352-354; 2 ref.

O’Connor P, 1990. Poaceae. In: Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, eds. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai`i. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press & Bishop Museum Press, 1481-1604.

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2004. Flora Europaea Database. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, UK. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html.

Sales F, 1993. Taxonomy and nomenclature of Bromus sect. Genea. Edinburgh Journal of Botany, 50(1):1-31

Stace C, 1991. New Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Tsvelev N, 1984. Grasses of the Soviet Union. Part 1. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Balkema, 1-568.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1984. In: Recovery Plan for the endangered and threatened species of the California Channel Islands. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 165 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 1997. In: Draft Recovery Plan for the Stephens' Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys stephensi). US Fish and Wildlife Service, 71 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2003. In: A Management and Monitoring Plan For Quino Ckeckerspot Butterfly (Euphydryas editha quino) and its Habitats in San Diego County. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 55 pp. http://www.sandiegocounty.gov/pds/mscp/docs/Quino/Quino_mgmt-monitor_Longcore-etc.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007. In: Lithophragma maximum (San Clemente Island Woodland Star). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 29 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. In: Island phacelia (Phacelia insularis var. insularis). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 16 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2008. In: Lange's metalmark butterfly (Apodemia mormo langei) Antioch Dunes evening-primrose (Oenothera deltoides subsp. howellii) Contra Costa wallflower (Erysimum capitatum var. angustatum). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 40 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: Callippe Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria callippe callippe). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 29 pp.

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. In: Monterey Spineflower (Chorizanthe pungens var. pungens). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 21 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc2393.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. In: Verbesina dissita (Big-leaved crownbeard). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 38 pp. https://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3559.pdf

US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012. In: Brodiaea pallida (Chinese Camp brodiaea) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. US Fish and Wildlife Service, 22 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc4008.pdf

USDA-ARS, 2004. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Villarroya M, Escorial MC, Rodrfguez E, Garcfa-Baudfn JM, Chueca MC, 2001. Bromus diandrus population with increased tolerance to metribuzin. The BCPC Conference: Weeds, 2001, Volume 1 and Volume 2. Proceedings of an international conference held at the Brighton Hilton Metropole Hotel, Brighton, UK, 12-15 November 2001, 601-606; 20 ref.

Weiller CM, Henwood MJ, Lenz J, Watson L, 1995. Pooideae (Poaceae) in Australia - Descriptions and Illustrations. Biodiversity and Biological Collections Web Server. http://biodiversity.uno.edu/delta/pooid/www/descr098.htm.

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