Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Phytochemical analysis and in vitro and in vivo pharmacological evaluation of Parthenium hysterophorus Linn.

Abstract

The main aim of this research was to explore Parthenium hysterophorus Linn phytochemically and pharmacologically. Phytochemical screening is important for the isolation of active compounds before bulk extraction. The crude extracts and their fractions were screened for enzyme (urease, α-glycosidase, and phosphodiesterase) inhibition assays, in vivo analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and sedative effects. Results indicated the presence of steroids, flavonoids, etc. The crude extracts such as methanol, hexane, aqueous, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and butanol exhibited excellent urease inhibitory activities with IC50 = 43.1 ± 1.24, 31.9 ± 2.21, 31.9 ± 2.21, 57.3 ± 1.27, 49.2 ± 2.16, and 35.3 ± 1.12, respectively, as compared to standard acetohydroxamic acid (20.3 ± 0.43). The extracts (methanol, hexane, aqueous, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and butanol) also showed promising α-glycosidase potency with IC50 = 13.1 ± 0.34, 21.2 ± 1.16, 23.1 ± 0.12, 84.2 ± 2.17, 118.6 ± 3.07, and 840 ± 1.73, respectively against acarbose (840 ± 1.73). The phosphodiesterase activity of the mentioned extracts was also excellent with IC50 = 131.1 ± 2.41, 197.2 ± 3.16, 24.2 ± 0.11, 62.4 ± 2.21, 152.4 ± 1.81, and 55.3 ± 2.15, respectively, against the standard (265.5 ± 2.25). Furthermore, butanol (14.96 ± 1.78), ethyl acetate (18.98 ± 1.71), and methanol (16.87 ± 1.00) showed dose-dependent analgesic effects with a maximum inhibition of acetic acid-induced writhes. Whereas, methanolic and butanol extracts exhibited maximum inhibition of inflammation in the carrageenan paw edema test. The aqueous () and butanol () extracts exhibited maximum a sedative effect followed by chloroform (), ethyl acetate (), and methanolic () fractions as compared to the standard drug. The current research concluded that Parthenium hysterophorus Linn has important phytochemical constituents having inhibitory effects on urease, α-glycosidase, and phosphodiesterase enzymes. Furthermore, the plant has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and sedative effects. The P. hysterophorus needs to further be explored for the candidate molecules responsible for the abovementioned activities.