Development and application of a high-sensitivity immunochromatographic test strip for detecting classical swine fever virus antibodies.
Classical swine fever (CSF) is caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and has led to huge economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. Although vaccination and other control measures have been carried out, it is essential to establish a rapid and valid method for CSF vaccination monitoring and clinical diagnosis. The CSFV E2 protein has been widely used as a major antigen for antibody detection. It is important to improve the affinity between the E2 protein and CSFV antibodies to improve the performance of the detection method. In this study, a recombinant E2 extracellular protein (amino acids 1-331) with a native homodimer conformation and high affinity for the anti-CSFV-E2 monoclonal antibody WH303 was expressed using a Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. A novel immunochromatographic test strip based on the recombinant CSFV E2 protein was developed for CSFV antibody detection. The sensitivity of this strip for detecting CSFV standard-positive serum was 1:102400, four times higher than that of the previously developed CnC2 test strip. No cross-reactivity with antibodies of other swine viruses was observed. Detection of clinical swine serum samples (n = 813) demonstrated that the agreements of this E2 test strip with three commercial ELISA kits were 97.17% (790/813), 95.94% (780/813) and 93.73% (762/813), respectively. Our data indicate that a novel E2 test strip with enhanced sensitivity has been developed and can be applied for clinical sample detection, providing a new, powerful and simple approach for CSFV antibody monitoring.