Invasive Species Compendium

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Abstract

Molecular detection and characterization of highly pathogenic Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus from a natural outbreak in wild pigs, Mizoram, India.

Abstract

This study reports for the first time a natural outbreak of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (HP-PRRS) caused by HP-PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) in wild pigs characterized by sudden onset of depression, anorexia, respiratory distress, and high fever. The disease has caused severe haemorrhagic pneumonia, haemorrhagic lymphadenitis, enlarged spleen with areas of infarction, and petechial haemorrhages on the myocardium and on the surface of kidneys. HP-PRRSV was detected in representative tissue samples by reverse transcription-PCR, and the field strain was isolated in the MA104 cell line. The phylogenetic analyses based on the whole genome sequences and nucleotide sequences of open reading frame 5 (ORF5) gene showed close grouping with the subtype IV of lineage 8/8.7 of PRRSV II, which represents the HP-PRRSV strains that predominate in the pig population of China since 2010. The amino acid sequence analysis of the ORF5 gene revealed the replacement of leucine (L) at position 39 to isoleucine (I) in the primary neutralizing epitope. Among the four potential N glycosylation sites, the N34 was mutated and found to be restricted to only three N glycosylation sites. The present findings have indicated that HP-PRRSV can cause fatal outbreaks and may emerge as a major threat to the wild pig population.