Phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus 4 in Henan Province of China: a retrospective study from 2011 to 2021.
Porcine circovirus 4 (PCV4), a novel circovirus, was first discovered in April 2019 in Hunan Province of China. At present, PCV4 infection has been detected in China and South Korea. However, until 2019, there was little information about its circulating status and genetic characteristics. To further clarify the origin and prevalence of PCV4, a total of 152 clinical samples collected from 49 different swine farms of 15 cities in Henan Province of China from 2011 to 2021 were tested for the presence of PCV4 by qPCR, and the complete genome of PCV4 strains was amplified from the positive samples and sequenced. Among these samples, 45.39% (69/152) were positive for PCV4 and 86.67% (13/15) of the cities and 67.35% (33/49) of the swine farms were positive for PCV4. The genome sequences of 15 PCV4 strains were obtained, of which two PCV4 strains (HN-ZMD-201212 and HN-XX-201212) were achieved from archival samples in 2012, indicating that PCV4 has been circulating for at least 10 years in Henan Province of China. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 15 PCV4 strains in our study together with PCV4 strain HNU-AHG1-2019 were clustered into an identical but separate evolutionary branch, with genomic identity ranging from 98.2% to 98.8%. Our research further provides significant epidemiological information on PCV4 in China, which will help understand the origin and genetic characteristics of this new virus.