Prevalence and associated factors of gastric and intestinal ulcers in companion and exotic animal patients at a university veterinary teaching hospital in Nigeria - a preliminary report.
Gastric and intestinal ulceration with or without perforation poses a global health challenge in both human and animal populations. In animal species, it is often associated with patients presenting with hematemesis, abdominal pain, melena and anorexia, with erratic vomiting. The definitive diagnoses with imaging modalities are less feasible in poor resource settings due to lack of adequate facilities. This study investigated the prevalence and associated factors of gastric and intestinal ulcers in companion and exotic animal patients presented at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, between 2009 and 2019 using hospital case records. Thirty-six cases of gastric and intestinal ulcer were recorded. They were mostly in canine (80.55%), few in exotic species [2 monkeys (5.55%), 1 lion (2.78%), 1 gazelle (2.78%), 1 dwarf crocodile (2.78%) and 1 fox (2.78%)] and one in an unspecified species (2.78%). Females (47.22%) and older animals (>1 year/69.45%) had higher occurrence than males (38.89%) and younger animals (<1 year/19.44%). All the patients were diagnosed with different pre-existing systemic conditions including: leptospirosis (19 cases/52.78%), chronic malnutrition (7 cases/19.44%), ehrlichiosis (2 cases/5.56%), trypanosomosis (2 cases/5.56%), babesiosis (2 cases/5.56%), hepatic tumor (1 case/2.78%), infectious canine hepatitis (1 case/2.78%), canine acute renal failure (1 case/2.78%) and granulomatous pneumonia (1 case/2.78%). There is therefore need to institute gastric and intestinal ulcer preventive and curative measures while treating predisposing primary disease conditions.