Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Micropropagation of pokeweed (Phytolacca americana L.) and comparison of phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity between pokeweed callus and other parts.

Abstract

Background: Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana L.) is regarded as an invasive plant in many parts of the world but possesses therapeutic characteristics used for antitumor and rheumatism treatment. This study investigated the effects of auxins and four explants on pokeweed callus induction. The effects of cytokinins and combinations between cytokinins and NAA on shoot and root induction were also studied. TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity of calli were screened and compared with other pokeweed plant parts. Methods: Four explants were used to induce callus using 2,4-D and IBA at 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg/l for each auxin. Direct shoot organogenesis from nodal explants was investigated using BAP, kinetin and TDZ (1, 2 and 4 mg/l for each cytokinin). Combined effects between cytokinins and NAA at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg/l were further simultaneously estimated with root induction. Calli derived from the leaves were compared with other plant parts for TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity using the Folin-Ciocalteu, AlCl3 colorimetric assay and DPPH assays, respectively. Results: Results showed that MS medium containing 2 mg/l 2,4-D induced callus formation on leaf explants that provided highest fresh and dry weights. Three types of synthetic cytokinins as kinetin, TDZ and BAP were used for direct shoot organogenesis from pokeweed nodes. MS medium containing 2 mg/l kinetin was effective in stimulating normal shoots, with the largest number of shoots and leaves and the longest shoots. The combination between cytokinins and NAA showed no positive effect on shoot and root induction from pokeweed nodal explants. For TPC and TFC determination, pokeweed seeds and leaves possessed the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively. Highest phenolic content of pokeweed seeds led to lowest IC50 by DPPH assay. Phenolic content was higher than flavonoid content. Conclusion: Results suggested promising conditions for callus induction. Leaf explants cultured on MS medium with 2 mg/l 2,4-D and nodal explants cultured on MS medium with 2 mg/l kinetin provided the largest number of normal shoots and leaves. NAA did not show positive effects on shoot and root induction when combined with cytokinins. Chemical constituent screening indicated that seeds and leaves provided highest TPC and TFC, respectively, while pokeweed calli contained higher phenolic than flavonoid content. This is the first report describing chemical constituent screening and antioxidant activity of calli and other parts of the pokeweed plant. Results provided significant information to further enhance bioactive compound contents of pokeweed calli using elicitation methods.