Phytochemical investigation, antioxidant properties and in vivo evaluation of the toxic effects of Parthenium hysterophorus.
Parthenium hysterophorus L. is a poisonous Asteraceae weed. The phytochemical profile, antioxidant activity, total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), and cytotoxicity of Parthenium hysterophorus L. flower extract were evaluated in this study, and the toxic effects were assessed in rabbits. The HPLC-DAD system was used for phytochemical analysis. The hemolytic and DPPH assays were performed. The effects of orally administering the flower crude extract to rabbits (n = 5) at four different doses (10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) for ten days on hematological and biochemical parameters were investigated. The crude extract of the flower contained phenolic compounds such as Gallic acid, Chlorogenic acid, Ellagic acid, and P Coumaric acid, which were detected at different retention times, according to the HPLC results. With a sample peak of 4667.475%, chlorogenic acid was abundant. At concentrations of 80 µg, the methanolic extract of flowers had total phenolic contents (89.364 ± 4.715 g GAE/g) and total flavonoid contents (65.022 ± 2.694 g QE/g). In the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, 80 µg of extract had the highest cell inhibition of 76.90% with an IC50 value of 54.278 µg/µL, while in the hemolytic assay 200 µg of extract had the highest cell inhibition of 76.90% with an IC50 > 500. The biochemical and hematological parameters were altered in the flower extract-fed groups as compared to the control (p < 0.05). The toxic effects on the blood, liver, and kidneys were confirmed. The findings also confirmed the presence of phenolic and flavonoid content in the flower extract, both of which contribute to the plant's antioxidant potential.