Glyphosate- and acetolactate synthase inhibitor-resistant kochia (Bassia scoparia) control in field pea.
Kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A.J. Scott] is an invasive C4 tumbleweed in the Great Plains of North America, where it impedes crop harvest and causes significant crop yield losses. Rapid evolution and spread of glyphosateand acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor-resistant kochia in western Canada limit the herbicide options available for control of these biotypes in field pea (Pisum sativum L.); one of the predominant pulse crops grown in this region. Field experiments were conducted near Lethbridge, Alberta, in 2013-2015 and Coalhurst, Alberta, in 2013-2014 to determine which herbicide options effectively control glyphosate- and ALS inhibitor-resistant kochia in field pea. Visible injury of field pea was minor (0%-4%) in all environments except for Lethbridge 2013, where pre-plant (PP) flumioxazin and all treatments containing post-emergence (POST) imazamox/bentazon resulted in unacceptable (14%-23%) visible injury in field pea. Herbicide impacts on field pea yield were minor overall. Carfentrazone + sulfentrazone PP and saflufenacil PP followed by imazamox/bentazon POST resulted in ≥80% visible control of kochia in all environments, while POST imazamox/bentazon alone resulted in ≥80% reduction in kochia biomass in all environments compared with the untreated control (albeit, absent of statistical difference in Coalhurst 2014). These results suggest that layering the protoporhyrinogen oxidase-inhibiting herbicides saflufenacil or carfentrazone + sulfentrazone PP with the ALS- and photosystem II-inhibiting herbicide combination imazamox/bentazon POST can effectively control glyphosate- and ALS inhibitor-resistant kochia in field pea while also mitigating further selection for herbicide resistance through the use of multiple effective herbicide modes-of-action.