In vitro propagation of apple tree from mature zygotic embryos.
The municipality of Nuevo Ideal is one of the most important regions for apple production in the state of Durango, Mexico. There are scattered Malus domestica trees from extinct orchards that were part of a production system and that today are abandoned without agronomic management, but that have shown an efficient adaptability to the conditions and continue to produce good quality fruit. The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro propagation protocol of M. domestica using seeds of feral trees from this region. Germination and production of adventitious shoots were evaluated using Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium and woody plant medium (WPM) supplemented with phytohormones 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and indole butyric acid (IBA) at different doses. For rooting, indole acetic acid (IAA), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and kinetin (KIN) were also used in combination with the previous ones. Germination and shoot formation obtained better results with the concentration of 0.5 mg L-1 of BAP in MS medium at 60 days. In the leaf development, the treatment with 1.5 mg L-1 of BAP in MS medium stood out, with 21.07 leaves on average. The plants of all the treatments had roots, however, the best development was shown by the treatment with 1.5 mg L-1 of NAA and 0.15 mg L-1 of BAP in WPM medium. Through the protocol generated in this research, it is possible to massively propagate the M. domestica species for purposes of germplasm conservation and subsequent exploitation of the crop.