Insecticide resistance in Australian Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and development of testing procedures for resistance surveillance.
Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) is a highly invasive noctuid pest first reported in northern Australia during early 2020. To document current status of resistance in S. frugiperda in Australia, insecticide toxicity was tested in field populations collected during the first year of establishment, between March 2020 and March 2021. Dose-response was measured by larval bioassay in 11 populations of S. frugiperda and a susceptible laboratory strain of Helicoverpa armigera. Emamectin benzoate was the most efficacious insecticide (LC50 0.023μg/ml) followed by chlorantraniliprole (LC50 0.055μg/ml), spinetoram (LC50 0.098μg/ml), spinosad (LC50 0.526μg/ml), and methoxyfenozide (1.413μg/ml). Indoxacarb was the least toxic selective insecticide on S. frugiperda (LC50 3.789μg/ml). Emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole and methoxyfenozide were 2- to 7-fold less toxic on S. frugiperda compared with H. armigera while spinosyns were equally toxic on both species. Indoxacarb was 28-fold less toxic on S. frugiperda compared with H. armigera. There was decreased sensitivity to Group 1 insecticides and synthetic pyrethroids in S. frugiperda compared with H. armigera: toxicity was reduced up to 11-fold for methomyl, 56 to 199-fold for cyhalothrin, and 44 to 132-fold for alpha cypermethrin. Synergism bioassays with metabolic inhibitors suggest involvement of mixed function oxidase in pyrethroid resistance. Recommended diagnostic doses for emamectin benzoate, chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, spinosad, methoxyfenozide and indoxacarb are 0.19, 1.0, 0.75, 6, 12 and 48μg/μl, respectively.