A survey of shared pathogens at the domestic-wild ruminants' interface in Doñana National Park (Spain).
A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate shared pathogens that can be transmitted by close or non-close contact at the domestic-wild ruminants' interface. During summer-autumn 2015, a total of 138 cattle and 203 wild ruminants (red deer, Cervus elaphus, and fallow deer, Dama dama) were sampled in Doñana National Park (DNP, south-western Spain), a Mediterranean ecosystem well known for the interaction network occurring in the ungulate host community. Pestiviruses, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV; Bovine orthopneumovirus), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1; Bovine alphaherpesvirus 1) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) were assessed using serological, microbiological and molecular techniques. The overall seroprevalence against viruses in cattle was 2.2% for pestiviruses, 11.6% for BRSV and 27.5% for BoHV-1. No virus-specific antibodies were found in wildlife. MTC incidence in cattle was 15.9%, and MTC seroprevalence in wild ruminants was 14.3%. The same Mycobacterium bovis spoligotypes (SB1232, SB1230 and SB1610) were identified in cattle, red deer and fallow deer. The serological results for the selected respiratory viruses suggest epidemiological cycles only in cattle. Surveillance efforts in multi-host epidemiological scenarios are needed to better drive and prioritize control strategies for shared pathogens.