Brucellosis in dairy herds: farm characteristics and practices in relation to likely adoption of three potential private-public partnership (PPP) vaccination control strategies in West and Central Africa.
Brucellosis is regarded as one of the highest burden zoonotic diseases to persist in many regions globally. While sustained vaccination against B. abortus in an endemic setting can markedly reduce the prevalence of large ruminant and human brucellosis and benefit local livelihoods, the implementation of effective and sustainable control programmes has often failed in the worst affected areas. In a cross-sectional study of 728 peri-urban dairy farmers in nine areas of six West and Central African countries, levels of commercialization and farm characteristics were examined alongside B. abortus seroprevalence estimates to hypothesize the most appropriate model for brucellosis vaccination delivery in each country. Demographic and economic data were collated and used to describe the farming systems currently in place. Furthermore, these data were utilized in a likelihood assessment to generate a quantitative score to hypothesize which of three private-public partnership (PPP) vaccine delivery models, that is (1) transformative, (2) transactional or (3) collaborative, would be most appropriate in each setting. The study sites had substantial differences in their levels of dairy commercialization and the farming practices employed; the heterogeneity across the study sites was evident in the conclusions of which models would be appropriate for vaccination delivery. While Lomé (Togo) had a strong indication for a transformative PPP model, Burkina Faso had strong indication for the collaborative PPP model. Of the remaining study sites, the scores were less dominant for any one model with Cameroon and Ivory Coast sites only just scoring highest on the transformative model and Senegal and Mali sites only just scoring highest on the collaborative model. Interestingly, none of the countries included in the study scored highest on the transactional model which currently.