Genetic diversity of Mycobacterium bovis evaluated by spoligotyping and miru-vntr in an intensive dairy cattle breeding area in Mexico.
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis. In Mexico, dairy cattle play an important role in the persistence and spread of the bacillus. In order to describe M. bovis genetic diversity, we genotyped a total of 132 strains isolated from slaughtered cattle with bTB suggestive lesions between 2009 and 2010 in Hidalgo, Mexico, using a panel of 9-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and spoligotyping. We found 21 spoligotypes, and 124 isolates were grouped in 13 clusters. The most frequent spoligotypes were SB0121 (49, 37.1%) and SB0673 (27, 20.5%); three new spoligotypes were reported SB02703, SB02704 and SB02705. We observed 37 MIRU-VNTR patterns, 107 isolates were grouped in 12 clusters and 25 isolates were unique. Spoligotypes SB0121, SB0673, SB0140, SB0145 and SB0120 showed marked subdivision applying MIRU-VNTR method; meanwhile, spoligotypes SB0971 and SB0327 showed single MIRU-VNTR profiles. The Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index (HGDI) was 0.88, 0.78 and 0.90 for 9-loci MIRU-VNTR, spoligotyping and both methods, respectively. Additionally, allelic diversity (h) analysis showed high diversity for QUB3232, QUB26 and QUB11b with h = 0.79, 0.66 and 0.63, respectively. Overall, high genetic variability was observed among M. bovis isolates. Thus, the use of 9-loci MIRU-VNTR panel is enough to describe genetic diversity, evolution and distribution of M. bovis. This study supports the use of these tools for subsequent epidemiological studies in high incidence areas.