Chemical composition of essential oil in fruits of Xanthium strumarium L.
Xanthium strumarium L. (Asteraceae) is a commonly distributed weed and invasive species to Bulgarian flora. Previous reports focussed on the composition of stem and leaf essential oils and gave possible medicinal use of this species. The aim of this study was to obtain an essential oil by hydro-distillation from the fruits of X. strumarium growing in Bulgaria and to analyse its content. A highly accurate gas chromatography - Orbitrap® mass spectrometry was used, paired with database-assisted interpretation of the results. The essential oil consisted mainly of terpenes (52%) with sesquiterpenes isovalencenol (14.8%) and himachalol (14.9%) as the main constituents. For the first time 16 compounds were identified: five sesquiterpenes, one sterol, four alkanes, an ester and an acetal. Three sesquiterpenes and an ester were found novel for the fruits as well. In addition, three compounds were identified in the sample, but already known in leaf oil. The results of the study will serve as a basis for possible utilization of this invasive weed in Bulgaria.