An "alien" species on the loose: new records and updated distribution of the black soldier flyHermetia illucens in the western palearctic.
The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera Stratiomyidae) is renowned around the globe as a bioconverter reducing organic matter as well as an important source of protein in aquaculture and livestock farming. In this publication, H. illucens is recorded for the first time in Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Israel, Lebanon and the United Kingdom utilizing museum and personal collection specimens, citizen-science data and authors' personal records. Eastern Mediterranean records are suspected to reflect on rather recent introduction events whereas new records from Central European countries and the United Kingdom may correspond to individuals introduced from already invaded neighbouring countries. The industrial use of the black soldier fly is implied to have contributed to the species spread around countries where insect farming facilities are operating. The species' known distribution and impacts on human welfare and the environment are summarized.