Transcriptome analysis reveals gene expression differences in Liriomyza trifolii exposed to combined heat and abamectin exposure.
Liriomyza trifolii is an invasive pest of horticultural and vegetable crops that possesses robust competitive advantages that enable it to replace closely-related species. High temperatures often occur concomitantly with insecticide usage during L. trifolii outbreaks. In this study, we compared the transcriptomes of L. trifolii exposed to high temperature (40°C T40), insecticide (LC50 of technical grade abamectin, I50) and combined high temperature and abamectin exposure (IT5040, I50 followed by T40; and TI4050, T40 followed by I50). RNA-seq generated and revealed 44,633 unigenes with annotation data; these were compared with COG and KEGG databases for functional classification and enrichment analysis. Compared with the I50 treatment, COG classification indicated that 'post-translational modification, protein turnover, chaperones' was enriched in the IT5040 treatment. In the TI4050 treatment, 'carbohydrate transport and metabolism' was the most abundant group. The most enriched KEGG pathways in the TI4050 and IT5040 treatments were 'longevity regulating pathway - multiple species' and 'protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum', respectively. Subsequent annotation and enrichment analyses indicated that stress-related genes such as CYP450s and HSPs were differentially expressed in the I50 vs. TI4050 or I50 vs. IT5040 treatment groups. Three commercial insecticide formulations were also used to further verify the expression of selected differentially-expressed genes. This study will be conductive to consider the temperature effect on insecticide tolerance in L. trifolii, and provides a framework for improving the application efficiency of insecticides in hot weather, which will ultimately reduce the overuse of pesticides.