Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Adipokinetic hormone signaling regulates cytochrome P450-mediated chlorantraniliprole sensitivity in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

Abstract

Background: Fall armyworm (FAW, Spodoptera frugiperda) is one of the most destructive and invasive pests worldwide and causes significant economic losses. Intensive and frequent use of insecticides has led to the development of resistance in FAW. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) have been proven to be involved in insecticide resistance in insects. However, the molecular mechanism underlying chlorantraniliprole resistance mediated by AKH signaling in FAW remains unclear. Results: The expression of SpfAKHR was highest in male adults and lowest in 1st instar larvae. SpfAKH was expressed the highest in eggs and the lowest in 6th instar larvae. AKH signaling was involved in the sensitivity of FAW to chlorantraniliprole through a toxicological bioassay, and the combination of chlorantraniliprole and bithionol (an inhibitor of key enzymes in the AKH pathway) significantly increased the mortality of FAW. Chlorantraniliprole significantly induced the expression of ten P450s, SpfAKH and SpfAKHR in FAW. RNA interference against SpfAKHR significantly decreased the P450 content, downregulated the expression of three P450 genes (SpfCYP6B50, SpfCYP321A9 and SpfCYP9A58) and inhibited the resistance of FAW to chlorantraniliprole. The topical application of AKH peptide significantly increased the P450 content, upregulated the expression of five P450 genes (SpfCYP321A9, SpfCY321A8, SpfCYP321A10, SpfCYP321A7 and SpfCYP6AB12), and enhanced the survival of FAW against chlorantraniliprole. Conclusions: AKH plays an important role in enhancing chlorantraniliprole resistance in FAW by exerting a positive influence on P450 gene expression and P450 content. These results provide valuable insights into insecticide resistance regulation and FAW control strategies.