Population genetic analysis of Euaresta bullans (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Xanthium spinosum L.
This study was based on Euaresta bullans (Wiedemann, 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) specimens collected from seven different provinces of Turkey (Amasya, Çorum, Kahramanmaraş, Kayseri, Samsun, Sinop and Yozgat). Euaresta bullans is monophage on Xanthium spinosum L. and were swept from over the host, which is a highly invasive plant in agricultural areas. Xanthium spinosum originated from South America and has spread throughout the world as well as in Turkey. In this study, we investigated population structure of E. bullans based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene data. We evaluated 105 adult specimens, 79 successful samples from sequence products were analysed, and 17 haplotypes were identified. Calculated nucleotide ratios of E. bullans populations (C: 16.7%; T: 38.93%; A: 29.05% and G: 15.8%), revealed that the base compounds were directed towards Adenine and Thymine (67, 98%). As a result of the study, the genetic distance between populations was found to be 0.09% - 0.046%. This showed that genetic variation among individuals of the E. bullans specimens is very low. According to the neutrality test (Tajima's D and Fu's Fs), result was p<0.05, it was determined that the populations showed a strong spread. Although E. bullans specimens have spread in different habitat characteristics and different geographic regions, they show a similar rate between populations. In particular, the high dependence of the host and the presence of the host in different habitats provide wide tolerance for this species in terms of environmental differences. Finally, it was found that gene flow continued between E. bullans populations and was not affected by any geographic and ecological barrier. Euaresta bullans have high populations on the host plant and results of this study support that it can be an effective biological control agent on X. spinosum in different regions.