Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Genetic diversity and prevalence of Atypical Porcine Pestivirus in the Midwest of US swine herds during 2016-2018.

Abstract

Atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV), a highly divergent pestivirus, has a wide geographical distribution around the world. APPV is known to cause type A-II congenital tremors in newborn piglets. The main objective of this study is to access APPV prevalence in the US swine herds utilizing a newly developed quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay. Retrospective analysis of 1,785 samples revealed a 19.0% prevalence in Midwest swine herds over a period of three years (2016-2018). Among all clinical and field samples that were APPV positive, 82 samples (24.19%) were also positive for one or more swine viral pathogens. Two APPV US strains identified in this study demonstrated significant sequence diversity (~12% in full genome) compared to the first reported APPV strain from the United States in 2014. Of the two strains identified in this study, USA/023005/2016 is closer to two strains identified in Germany, and USA/047310/2017 shares more similarities with two US strains including Minnesota-1 and ISDVDL2014016573. Partial NS5B sequences (9127-9836 nt of the polyprotein gene) obtained from 54 APPV-positive samples revealed considerable sequence diversity, ranging from 85.8% to 100% nucleotide identity, within the US strains in samples from different geographic regions. Analysis of all US samples indicates high prevalence of APPV in Minnesota (37.35%), followed by Illinois (32.86%), Iowa (30.60%) and Kansas (21.89%). APPV was detected in 15.48% of samples assayed from 2017, slightly higher than that in 2016 (13.08%), but much lower than 2018 (28.77%). Among the various sample types tested, oral fluid samples had the highest prevalence and lowest average Ct value suggesting their suitability as a reliable diagnostic specimen for APPV detection. Overall, sequence variation among APPV strains and prevalence of the pathogen within the United States provides a basis for understanding the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of APPV in the US swine herds.