Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Feline chaphamaparvovirus in cats with enteritis and upper respiratory tract disease.

Abstract

Feline chaphamaparvovirus (FeChPV) is a novel parvovirus, first discovered in a multi-facility feline shelter in Canada in 2019, during an outbreak of acute gastro-enteritis (AGE) in cats, and detected at high prevalence (47.0%) in faecal samples. Whether this finding was anecdotal or similar viruses are common components of feline virome is still unclear. Also, the potential impact of this virus on feline health is uncertain. Herewith, a case-control study was performed to investigate whether this novel parvovirus may play a role as enteric pathogen, screening samples collected from cats with and without AGE signs. Furthermore, we extended the research by testing archival paired oropharyngeal and ocular samples collected from cats with or without upper respiratory tract disease (URTD). FeChPV DNA was detected at high prevalence rate (36.8%, 14/38) in clinical cases, representing the most frequently identified enteric virus, followed by feline panleukopenia parvovirus (23.7%, 9/38), feline coronavirus (5.3%, 2/38), feline kobuvirus (5.3%, 2/38) and noroviruses (5.3%, 2/38). The different prevalence rates of FeChPV between the case and control group were statistically significant, suggesting a possible association of the virus with acute gastro-enteric disease. The virus was also detected at low rate in the respiratory samples of cats with (3.3%, 6/183) or without URTD (4.3%, 6/140), although there was no significant association between FeChPV and URTD. The complete VP encoding gene was determined for five viruses and the nearly full-length genome was reconstructed for three viruses, namely 313R/2019/ITA, 284R/2019/ITA and 49E/2019/ITA. In the NS1-based tree, the Italian strains clustered tightly with the two FeChPV prototypes detected in Canada, within a monophyletic cluster related to but clearly distinct from canine chaphamaparvovirus, currently classified in the species Carnivore chaphamaparvovirus 1 (CaChPV-1).