Emergency transboundary outbreak pest (ETOP) situation bulletin for April with a forecast through mid-June 2022.
The Desert Locust (Schistoseca gregaria - SGR1): The desert locust (SGR) situation remained calm in April in the Central Outbreak Region (COR), and only a few isolated immature swarms were treated on 30 ha in southern Ethiopia, and hoppers were treated on 340 ha on the southern Red Sea coast in Egypt. Isolated adults prevailed in a few places on the Gulf of Aden coast in Yemen. Overall ecological conditions remained dry, and no locusts were reported elsewhere in COR. The Western outbreak region (WOR) remained calm. In the Eastern outbreak region (EOR), only few isolated adults and hoppers were detected in coastal areas of southeast Iran and southwest Pakistan. Forecast: Ecological conditions continue drying up in COR causing locust numbers to further decline. Escapee locusts from southern Ethiopia will likely move northward to the Somali administrative region and likely breed on a small-scale in areas where soil is moist, and vegetation is green in areas where rainfall occurs. The southern coast of Yemen will experience a decline in locust numbers with vegetation continue drying out and adults moving to the interior where breeding may commence at the foothills of rainfall. Low numbers of solitary adults may appear in areas of recent rainfall in the interior of Saudi Arabia, but breeding is expected to be limited with the rise in temperature and drying up of vegetation. Poor rain is expected to limit any SGR developments during the forecast period in Saudi Arabia and Yemen and significant development is unlikely in COR in general during the forecast period. In WOR, low numbers of adults may persist in northern Mali and Niger, but significant developments are unlikely in the region during the forecast period. In EOR, isolated adults may appear, but poor rain in the following month will significantly suppress any breeding through June. The forecast for above normal summer rains from July to September may cause some breeding with a potential increase in SGR numbers in Sahel Africa, the Horn and Yemen, but significant developments are unlikely and additional breeding is not expected in primary breeding areas elsewhere, including in the EOR. Red (Nomadic) Locust (Nomadacris septemfasciata) (NSE): NSE swarms are expected to have begun developing in the primary outbreak areas in Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Zambia. African Migratory Locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) (AML): Isolated populations of AML persisted in Zambia and low populations of adults and hoppers were detected in multiple provinces in Zimbabwe. Malagasy locust (Locust migratoria capito) (LMC): In Madagascar, aerial and ground survey and control operations continued against hopper groups and bands and immature and mature adults. Tree Locusts, Anacridium spp. (ASP): ASP activities were not reported during this month. Central American Locust, Schistocerca piceiferons (CAL): The CAL situation remained generally calm in Mexico and Central America where a few solitary adults are expected to have started mating. South American Locust, Schistocerca cancellata (SAL): No update was received at the time this bulletin was compiled. Italian (CIT), Moroccan (DMA), and Asian Migratory Locusts (LMI): DMA hatching began early March in Tajikistan and from mid- to late March in Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. CIT is expected to have begun hatching towards the end of April. LMI activities were not expected during April. Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, J. E. Smith) (FAW): FAW infestations continued affecting maize in several counries/districts in Kenya and Tanzania respectively, and control operations were launched by the affected farmers with assistance from their respective line Ministries. African Armyworm (Spodoptera exempta) (AAW): AAW outbreaks were reported in nine districts in Tanzania and 33 counties in Kenya where affected farmers carry out control operations with support from their respective MoAs. Quelea species (QSP): QSP outbreaks were reported in several districts in Tanzania where control operations treated 745 ha. The pest was reported attacking sorghum and millet crops in several provinces in Zimbabwe. In Kenya QSP was reported attacking rice, and plans were in progress to control the pest. Active surveillance, monitoring and timely preventive and curative control as well as timely sharing of information on ETPs remain critical to abate the threats ETOPs pose to food security and livelihoods of vulnerable communities. USAID/BHA/TPQ regularly monitors ETOPs in close collaboration with its global network of National MoA PPDs/DPVs/PHSs, regional and international pest monitoring and control entities, FAO, CLCPRO, CRC, DLCO-EA, and IRLCO-CSA, and research centers, academia, private sector, NGOs and others, and issues monthly analytical ETOP Bulletins to stakeholders (please refer to list of acronyms on the last pages).