Benefit and challenges of using tropical fruits as ornamental trees for green city.
Urbanization is inevitable, and the trend is increasing from year to year. In 1950 only 30% of people lived in urban areas, increasing to 55% in 2018 and possibly will continue to grow to 68% in 2050. The development of rural areas into urban areas causes some agricultural land to change function to non-agricultural and cause a reduction in green open space. To improve the liveability and sustainability of urban areas, a greener urban area needs to be developed by allocating areas for community parks, road medians, roadside parks, or generally green open spaces. One of the components of the park or green open space is ornamental trees. Tropical fruit trees are an option to fill green open space because they have many advantages compared to general ornamental plants. Tropical fruit trees can be enjoyed because of the shapes, color, and beauties of their leaves, flowers, fruits, or even the beauties of the tree architecture. The flowers, immature and mature fruit of some fruit tree species, give a nice fragrance to the environment. The type of plant growth is also different in form, from herbaceous, liana, shrubs to big trees, which would enrich their use as the landscape element or ornamental plant for a green city. Other than as ornamental, the planting of tropical fruit trees in the urban area open space is important for the conservation of genetic material, especially for rare, underutilized, or exotic species, for part of food security/sustainable food system, direct economy, or commercial agribusiness, and ecological function for a better environment. However, despite its many benefits, planting tropical fruit trees in the open space of urban areas also has many obstacles and challenges.