Biological control successes and failures: North American region.
This chapter discusses biological control successes and failures in the North American region, including Canada, Greenland, the continental USA, Mexico and Bermuda. In contrast to the long history of biological control introductions into North America, the region has played a relatively minor role as a source of biological control agents used elsewhere in the world. However, the southern USA and especially Mexico have been an important source of biological control agents for invasive plants in Australia and South Africa, including species of Ageratina, Ambrosia, Baccharis, Lantana, Mimosa, Parkinsonia, Parthenium, Prosopis, Sida, Solanum, Tithonia and Xanthium. Several biological control agents have also been introduced into Hawai'i and other Pacific islands from the North American mainland for control of pests such as tomato pinworm, Keiferia lycopersicella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and Liriomyza spp. (Diptera: Agromyzidae) leafminers. In addition, 23 biological control agent species native to the USA and 13 native to Canada have been introduced into Europe. Biological control introductions into North America against insect and mite pests, weeds and invasive plants, plant pathogens and snails are described.