Invasive Species Compendium

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Abstract

A review of the potential and constraints for crossbreeding as a basis for goat production by smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.

Abstract

Background: The purpose of this review was to provide and synthesize validated and up-to-date scientific knowledge on the benefits and drawbacks of crossbreeding as a basis for goat production by Ethiopian smallholder farmers. The majority of Ethiopian smallholder farmers and pastoralists rely on goat production for their livelihoods. Ethiopia's goat population is extensive, with eight genetically recognized indigenous goat breeds. These breeds, on the other hand, do not produce exceptionally well, and their contributions to smallholder farmers and the national economy fall far short of their complete output potential. Main body of the abstract: In this regard, during the past many years, numerous goat productivity development programs in Ethiopia have collaborated to design and implement crossbreeding as a basis for goat production by smallholder farmers. Crossing indigenous goats (i.e., Afar and Somali goats) with exotic goat breeds, including Saanen, Anglo-Nubian, Toggenburg, and Boer goats, was done primarily to increase the output of indigenous goats. This crossbreeding plan, however, unsuccessful due to a number of factors, including a lack of baseline production data, poorly managed institutional synergies, and little or no consideration of smallholder farmers' needs, opinions, active participation, decisions, and local practices. In addition, insufficient and poor-quality feeds and forages, the termination and weakness of goat genetic improvement projects, disease and parasite incidence, poor veterinary services, and a lack of infrastructure are all major reasons for crossbreeding failure as a basis for goat production by Ethiopian smallholder farmers. Short conclusion: Crossbreeding as a basis for goat production by Ethiopian smallholder farmers was made possible by the presence of vast indigenous goat breeds with diverse performance parameters throughout the country, as well as the engagement of both governmental and non-governmental groups. In contrast, a lack of baseline production data, a lack of well-organized institutional synergies, and little or no consideration of smallholder farmers' needs, decisions, participation, and local practices were the main roadblocks to planned crossbreeding as a basis for goat production by smallholder farmers in Ethiopia.