The stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini): a review of the current threats to their survival.
Pollination by insects is an essential service for the conservation of plant biodiversity, since it increases the rate of fertilization of flowers and therefore increases the quality and quantity of seeds and fruits. In tropical regions, native plants depend heavily on stingless bees as pollinators since before the introduction of the European honey bee Apis mellifera. However, like for many other insect species worldwide, anthropogenic actions represent a true threat to stingless bee populations. In this article, we review the works that evaluated the potential negative impacts of human activities on populations of stingless bees. The studies constitute a strong body of evidence that stingless bee populations are at risk of decline around the world due to threats including habitat loss, agrochemicals, competition for resources, climate change, and the introduction of exotic species, including pathogens.