Distribution and taxonomy of endemic and introduced Drosophilidae in Hawaii.
This checklist contains taxonomic information and distributions for 720 drosophilid species, including all species descended from the most recent common ancestor of the Hawaiian Drosophilidae and all adventive species present in the Hawaiian Islands. The ancestor of the Hawaiian Drosophilidae colonized the archipelago roughly 25 million years ago and now includes 689 described taxa. This includes species placed in the genus Scaptomyza (273 spp), only some of which are Hawaiian endemics (148 spp), and all endemic Hawaiian Drosophila (416 spp). There are also 33 adventive species that have been introduced to Hawaii in the past ~200 years. Taxonomic placement, to the level of species subgroup, and all references related to replacement names and synonyms are included. This is the first comprehensive list to be published in over a decade and includes many recent changes and additions to the fauna, including 130 new species names. This checklist will serve as the basis for future revisionary work on the endemic Hawaiian Drosophilidae, particularly the genus Scaptomyza.