Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Emergency transboundary outbreak pest (ETOP) situation bulletin for December 2021 with a forecast through mid-February 2022.

Abstract

The Desert Locust (Schistoseca gregaria - SGR1): In the central outbreak region (COR), hopper bands were controlled on 24,356 ha in northeast Somalia where fledging that started at mid-month produced several small immature swarms. A few immature and mature swarms were present and controlled on 1,956 ha in southern Ethiopia. Control operations and below normal rainfall reduced further development the SGR in Somalia and Ethiopia during early December. Adult groups were controlled on 1,550 in the interior of Sudan where escapee adults moved to the Red Sea coast and formed scattered mature adults on the coastal areas in northeast. Localized breeding continues in southeast Egypt where adults were treated on 6 ha. Isolated adults were detected on the Red Sea coast in Eritrea. Scattered adults began breeding on small-scale on the Red Sea coast of Yemen. In the western outbreak region (WOR) scattered hoppers and adults from local breeding in Niger were reported. No SGR was reported in the eastern outbreak region (EOR) during this month. Forecast: In COR, a few small immature swarms are likely to migrate from northeast Somalia to southern Ethiopia and northern Kenya in January and some swarms could also reach southern Somalia. The swarms are not expected to mature and breed until the long rains start around April. Undetected breeding from summer-bred mature swarms from Somalia may have occurred during December near the Ethiopia/Kenya border. Small-scale breeding will occur but may be limited by poor rains in coastal areas along both sides of the Red Sea in southeast Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia, and on both sides of the Gulf of Aden. WOR will likely remain calm during the forecast period. Isolated adults may appear in spring breeding areas in EOR in Iran and Pakistan in February, but significant developments are not likely during the forecast period. Red (Nomadic) Locust (Nomadacris septemfasciata) (NSE): NSE situation remained relatively calm during December. However, as breeding conditions are improving, hopper bands are expected to form in Lake Chilwa/Lake Chiuta and Mpatsanjoka Dambo plains in Malawi; in Ikuu-Katavi, Malagarasi, Rukwa plains and Bahi Valley in Tanzania; Kafue Flats in Zambia; and Buzi-Gorongosa and Dimba plains in Mozambique. African Migratory Locust: Locusta migratoria migratorioides (LMI): Isolated populations of LMI persisted in Simalaha Plains in Western Province in Zambia. Malagasy locust Locust migratoria capito - (LMC): Aerial survey and control operations have begun in the Ihosy region where 4th and 5th instar hoppers and young adults are in the solitarious-transient phase. Tree Locusts, Anacridium spp. (ASP): No ASP activities were reported during this month. Central American Locust, Schistocerca piceiferons (SPI) (CAL): No update was received at the time this bulletin was compiled. South American Locust, Schistocerca cancellata (SCA): No update was received at the time this bulletin was compiled. Italian (CIT), Moroccan (DMA), and Asian Migratory Locusts (LMI): DMA, CIT and LMI activities are expected to have remined calm in the CCA regions. Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, J. E. Smith) (FAW): Low to moderate FAW infestations were reported affecting young maize in Malawi, Mashonaland Province of Zimbabwe, and Kisii County in Kenya. Control operations were carried out by the affected farmers with assistance from the Ministries of Agriculture. No reports were received elsewhere, but mild to high-level infestations are expected to have occurred across invaded regions. African Armyworm (AAW) (Spodoptera exempta): AAW outbreaks were not reported during this month. Quelea spp. (QSP): QSP outbreaks were reported in Laikipia County in Kenya, in Midland Province in Zimbabwe and in Kilimanjaro Region in Tanzania where control operations were under preparation at the time this bulletin was compiled. Active surveillance, monitoring and timely preventive and curative control as well as timely sharing of information on ETPs remain critical to abate the threats ETOPs pose to food security and livelihoods of vulnerable communities. USAID/BHA/TPQ regularly monitors ETOPs in close collaboration with its global network of PPDs/DPVs, regional and international pest monitoring and control entities, FAO, CLCPRO, CRC, DLCO-EA, and IRLCO-CSA, and research centers, academia, private sector, NGOs and others and issues monthly analytical ETOP Bulletins to stakeholders.