Population genetic analysis of Salurnis marginella (Hemiptera: Flatidae).
Salurnis marginella Guérin-Méneville, 1829 (Hemiptera: Flatidae) is an invasive species first reported in 2003 in Iksan, which is located in the mid-western region of South Korea, and subsequently found in the nearby regions in 2005. However, molecular-perspective reports on their invasive characteristics are not yet available. In this study, population genetic characteristics of Korean S. marginella were evaluated using the mitochondrial COI region and sequencing 124 individual samples collected in 11 Korean localities. A total of 12 haplotypes were identified with a maximum sequence divergence of 1.368% (9 bp). Haplotype diversity was relatively higher than that of other insect species invaded into Korea, providing 2-6 haplotypes per populations, indicating that introduction to Korea may have happened rather extensively and consistently. Nucleotide diversity (π) was the highest in Iksan but owing to the limited sample size (three individuals) from this locality, additional studies are required for drawing conclusive inference regarding the place of entry to Korea. Ulsan, the easternmost population in the present study, revealed nearly the lowest diversity estimates, such as the lowest H and the second-lowest π; a unique haplogroup with a higher frequency; and an independent genetic cluster, suggesting that the introduction of S. marginella to Ulsan was an independent event. Further collection in Korea and neighboring countries, including the original distributional range is necessary to elucidate the invasive dynamics of S. marginella.