Dittrichia graveolens (L.) greuter, a rapidly spreading invasive plant: chemistry and bioactivity.
Dittrichia graveolens L. Greuter belonging to the Asteraceae family, is an aromatic herbaceous plant native to the Mediterranean region. This plant species has been extensively studied for its biological activities, including antioxidant, antitumor, antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anticholinesterase, and antityrosinase, and for its peculiar metabolic profile. In particular, bioactivities are related to terpenes and flavonoids metabolites, such as borneol (40), tomentosin (189), inuviscolide (204). However, D. graveolens is also well known for causing health problems both in animals and humans. Moreover, the species is currently undergoing a dramatic northward expansion of its native range related to climate change, now including North Europe, California, and Australia. This review represents an updated overview of the 52 literature papers published in Scopus and PubMed dealing with expansion, chemistry (262 different compounds), pharmacological effects, and toxicology of D. graveolens up to October 2021. The review is intended to boost further studies to determine the molecular pathways involved in the observed activities, bioavailability, and clinical studies to explore new potential applications.