Developing biosecurity plans for non-native species in marine dependent areas: the role of legislation, risk management and stakeholder engagement.
The rapid growth of marine trade and associated activities has led to an ever-increasing number of non-native species (NNS) being transported around the globe. Once established, NNS can be further spread by human activities. The spread of NNS is a trans-boundary challenge that must be met through a range of management measures operating over international and local scales. In contrast, the responsibility of managing NNS post-introduction often fall on marine managers working within localised areas of jurisdiction, such as ports and marinas. Here the researchers examine how legislative frameworks, risk management and perception, influence the ability to develop and implement biosecurity planning in an offshore, semi-autonomous island community; the Shetland Islands. The researchers propose a holistic approach to biosecurity management by integrating risk management methodologies into the wider management process of marine spatial planning. The challenges and opportunities created by a bottom-up approach to management are assessed within the context of global, pan-European, national and local management measures (e.g. regulations, treaties and policies). This paper sets out a framework for managing risk in an environment where the actions of many actors are outside the direct control of those tasked with managing the ecological and socio-economic impacts of marine NNS.