Biological invasions and international trade: managing a moving target.
International trade is a key pathway for the global spread of nonnative species. Historical and emerging trade flows interact with ecological dynamics to shape nonnative species risk and determine how that risk can be mitigated. This article discusses these underlying processes, emerging trade trends, and the role of past and future economics research in understanding and managing nonnative species risks from trade. The researchers identify four priorities for future economics research. These include expanding economic analysis to consider interventions across the biosecurity continuum more comprehensively, leveraging new data systems for real-time prediction and effective allocation of inspection effort, applying economic analysis to anticipate and respond to emerging trade trends, and improving understanding of exporter and consumer behavioral responses to policy interventions in order to encourage intended (and ameliorate unintended) reactions.