Epidemiology and management strategies of ginger leaf Spot disease (Phyllosticta zingiberi).
Ginger is one of the imperative spice crops belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. The plant owns a mixture of numerous attributes and possessions, making it a very valued crop that has large demand in the worldwide market. However, the cultivation of ginger is extremely restricted by disease and pests, which highly attribute to yield damage. The crop is exposed to several fungal, bacterial, viral and nematode invasions throughout the growing period, causing variable degrees of crop injury and yield decrease. In Ethiopia, amongst; the various foliar diseases the leaf spot disease caused by Phyllosticta zingiberi is taking as a significant disease due to its severe leaf spotting, which abolishes the chlorophyllous tissues, resulting in significant loss decrease in yield. This pathogen causes 13 to 66% yield losses depending upon severity. Therefore, knowing the pathogen biology, ecology, epidemiology and management strategies is very important. Phyllosticta zingiberi has a compound disease cycle linking several causes of primary inoculum and various modes of distribution of secondary inoculum. This consequences in explosive increases during suitable environmental conditions. Disease losses can be reduced through combined management practices that comprise cultural, host resistance and chemical spray.