Amphibian biodiversity of Beihai wetland nature reserve in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province.
During the 21st century, nearly half of amphibians are facing survival threats for different reasons. In China, such situation is serious in Yunnan Province. A unique floating Carex swamp wetland is in Beihai Wetland, Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, which has an important value of scientific research in China and world. Besides, amphibians have often been thought to serve as a particularly desirable ecological indicator species. They can be used to assess environmental conditions. The amphibian resources survey is beneficial to promote Beihai Wetland protection and restoration. From May, July to August 2019, and from May to June and September 2020, the amphibian resources survey was investigated. The investigative methods were mainly based on transect lines. 8 transect lines were choosen (Table 1). Besides, interviewing helped to confirm species. There were 21 species of amphibians, including 1 invasive species. 20 indigenous species belong to 2 orders, 7 families and 17 genera (Table 2). Compared to the last survey (2008), 5 species were recorded in Beihai Wetland for the first time (Table 4). They were Leptobrachella tengchongensis, Rhacophorus rhodopus, Zhangixalus smaragdinus, Chiromantis doriae and invasive species American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana). 2 families and 8 species were newly revised (Table 4). G-F index was used to analyse data. The G-index reflected the diversity at genus level. The F-index reflected the diversity within and among families. Average fauna resemblance (AFR) was used to compare Beihai Wetland with surrounding areas. Firstly, the results show that the G index of amphibians in Beihai Wetland is 2.842, the F index of amphibians is 5.001 and the G-F index of amphibians is 0.432. Secondly, the average fauna resemblance (AFR) value of Beihai Wetland is similar to Tengchong (Gaoligong Mountain National Natural Reserve), Longling (Xiaoheishan Nature Reserve), Yingjiang (Tongbiguan Nature Reserve) and Lushui (Gaoligong Mountain National Natural Reserve) (Table 3). Thirdly, the abundance of American Bullfrogs is far greater than that of indigenous species. American Bullfrogs have become the dominant species and have formed breeding populations. Therefore it is necessary to take a set of protective measures. Fourthly, it is important to establish a monitoring program for amphibians. The monitoring systems are helpful to evaluate wetland ecological health.