Cyhalofop-butyl resistance conferred by a novel trp-2027-leu mutation of acetyl-coa carboxylase and enhanced metabolism in Leptochloa chinensis.
BACKGROUND: Chinese sprangletop (Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees) is an invasive grass weed severely infesting rice fields across China. In October 2020, a suspected resistant Leptochloa chinensis population HFFD3 that survived the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicide cyhalofop-butyl applied at its field-recommended rate was collected from a rice field in Feidong County, Anhui Province, China. This study aimed to determine the resistance profile of HFFD3 to ACCase inhibitors and to investigate its mechanisms of resistance to cyhalofop-butyl. RESULTS: Single-dose testing confirmed that HFFD3 had evolved resistance to cyhalofop-butyl. Two loci encoding plastidic ACCase were each amplified from the susceptible (S) and resistant (R, HFFD3) individual plants. Target gene sequencing and derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence assay revealed all the R plants carried a Trp-2027-Leu substitution in their ACCase1,2 copies. Dose-response bioassays revealed that HFFD3 was highly resistant to cyhalofop-butyl and exhibited cross-resistance to metamifop, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, quizalofop-P-ethyl, and clethodim. Pre-treatment with piperonyl butoxide and 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzoxadiazole considerably reversed the resistance of the R plants to cyhalofop-butyl, by 23% and 43%, respectively. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis suggested the metabolic rates of cyhalofop-butyl were significantly faster in the R than in the S plants. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed the first case of an arable weed species featuring cross-resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides due to a novel Trp-2027-Leu mutation of ACCase. Target gene mutation and cytochrome P450s- and glutathione-S-transferases-involved enhanced metabolism may have simultaneously participated in the resistance of HFFD3 population to cyhalofop-butyl.