Stings and bites from ants, mosquitoes, horseflies, spiders, and other non-hymenopteran arthropods.
Apart from apidae and vespidae hymenoptera stings, many other arthropods can cause clinical reactions, due to allergic or toxic mechanisms. Anaphylactic reactions have been described after stings from other hymenoptera such as ants (for example « imported fire ant ») or bites from diptera (such as mosquitoes or horseflies), heteroptera such as some bugs ("kissing bug", "bed bug"). Among arachnids, anaphylactic reactions have been described after tick bites (Ixodes ricinus, Argas reflexus). A very limited number of spider species can cause potentially serious toxic reactions, which are more frequent among scorpions, rather by envenomation than by immunologic reactions. Treatment of venom toxic reactions is complex and adrenalin does not play the major role. Other insect bites (simuliidae, culicoïdes), even insect larvae (lepidoptera caterpillars) can cause inflammatory and allergic reactions, not very serious usually, but important for differential diagnosis. Spider mites can also be source of respiratory diseases similar to the house dust mites-related diseases.