Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Anti-inflammatory activity and mechanism of cryptochlorogenic acid from Ageratina adenophora.

Abstract

Ageratina adenophora is an invasive plant known for its toxicity to livestock. Current research on this plant has shifted from toxicity prevention to the beneficial utilization of plant resources. This study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of cryptochlorogenic acid (CCGA) isolated from Ageratina adenophora on the inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW264.7 cells. RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with CCGA (200, 100, and 50 μg/mL) and subsequently stimulated with LPS (1 μg/mL) for 16 h. The cytotoxicity of CCGA was tested using the Cell Counting Kit (CCK8). The mechanism of action of CCGA in attenuating inflammation was also identified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot. The results showed that CCGA had a maximal safe concentration of 200 mg/mL. Moreover, CCGA reduced the level of nitric oxide (NO) and iNOS in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells (p < 0.01). In addition, CCGA reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells at both the mRNA and protein levels (p < 0.01). CCGA prevented the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells via the inhibition of IKK and IκB phosphorylation and the degradation of IκB proteins (p < 0.01). This finding indicated that CCGA isolated from A. adenophora may be a potential candidate for the treatment of inflammation-related diseases.