Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Invasive fungal infections in acute and chronic liver impairment: a systematic review.

Abstract

Patients with acute and chronic liver impairment are susceptible to invasive fungal infections such as candidemia and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis as a result of cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction, humoral immunodeficiency, cell-mediated dysfunction and systemic inflammation. Besides classical risk factors for invasive fungal infection, acute-on-chronic liver failure, corticosteroid use, gastrointestinal bleeding, and prophylactic use of antibiotics are all additional conditions which are related to the potential development of fungal infections. Therefore, high-risk patients should be carefully followed by microbiological surveillance including cultures but also by imaging and fungal biomarkers for providing early diagnosis. Echinocandins are still the mainstay and first line antifungal therapy in cases of invasive candidiasis. Due to concerns of liver toxicity and in cases of renal impairment liposomal amphotericin B is a suitable alternative to voriconazole in patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Although, data of isavucoanzole and posaconazole use in those patients are also promising more specific studies in the subgroup of patients with liver impairment are needed. Especially, due to the late diagnosis and multiple organ dysfunction usually present in patients with liver impairment morbidity and mortality rates remain high. Based on the broad spectrum of diverse reports with varying content and quality and in some cases lack of evidence we performed a systematic review on this topic.