Smallholder farmers' adaptation strategies for the management of fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in rural Ghana.
This study examined smallholder farmers' adaptation strategies in managing fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in rural Ghana. Using mixed methods, 378 smallholder farmers were randomly selected and surveyed, while 41 key informants were interviewed. The majority of smallholder farmers (83.1%) had experienced fall armyworm invasion with widespread and rapid invasion particularly in maize, which often led to a considerable reduction in crop yields. Pesticides (88%) and washing detergent solution (44%) applications were the common pest management practices. Male farmers were more positive in applying pesticides than female farmers. Integrated pest management practices and education among farmer should be improved.