Weeds of vineyard ecosystem and their management with selected broad spectrum herbicides.
A field experiment was conducted during 2018-19 to study weed diversity and their management by using broad spectrum herbicide. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The weed vegetation analysis was done before herbicide treatment. Herbicides evaluated were glufosinate-ammonium 13.5% SL at 375, 495 and 615 g a.i./ha, diuron 80% WP at 1600 g a.i./ha and paraquat dichloride 24% SL at 500 g a.i./ha along with hand weeding and weedy check. The weed vegetation analysis indicated that, 17 weed species were predominant which includes seven grass and eight broad leaf weed (BLW). Among the grasses, Digitaria sanguinalis (30.81 and 29.04%) and Paspalidium spp. (23.52 and 22.03) could be rated as highly predominant being much higher species density during 2018 and 2019. Among the BLW, Ageratum conizoides (35.6 and 36.54%) and Parthenium hysteroporus (24.75 and 24.19%) being predominant during 2018 and 2019. The higher control efficiency of grasses was achieved with application of glufosinate-ammonium 13.5% SL applied at 615 g a.i./ha at 30 and 45 DAT (99.51 and 98.18% and 95.31 and 98.03%, respectively during 2018 and 2019). BLW were also effectively killed by application of glufosinate-ammonium 13.5% SL at 615 g a.i./ha as evident by higher control efficiency at 30 and 45 DAT (96.30 and 94.87% and 93.97 and 94.39%, respectively during 2018 and 2019). Hence, glufosinateammonium13.5% SL is having greater efficacy on mixed weed population of vineyards when compared with paraquat and diuron applied at 615 g a.i./ha.