Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Transcriptomic responses to phosphorus in an invasive cyanobacterium, Raphidiopsis raciborskii: implications for nutrient management.

Abstract

Phosphorus (P) is a vital macronutrient associated with the growth and proliferation of Raphidiopsis raciborskii, an invasive and notorious bloom-forming cyanobacterium. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in P acclimation remain largely unexplored for Raphidiopsis raciborskii. Here, transcriptome sequencing of Raphidiopsis raciborskii was conducted to reveal multifaceted mechanisms involved in mimicking dipotassium phosphate (DIP), β-glycerol phosphate (Gly), 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid (AEP), and P-free conditions (NP). Chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters showed significant differences in the NP and AEP groups compared with the DIP and Gly-groups. Expression levels of genes related to phosphate transportation and uptake, organic P utilization, nitrogen metabolism, urea cycling, carbon fixation, amino acid metabolism, environmental information, the ATP-synthesis process in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and the pentose phosphate pathway were remarkably upregulated, while those related to photosynthesis, phycobiliproteins, respiration, oxidative phosphorylation, sulfur metabolism, and genetic information were markedly downregulated in the NP group relative to the DIP group. However, the expression of genes involved in organic P utilization, the urea cycle, and genetic information in the Gly-group, and carbon-phosphorus lyase, genetic information and environmental information in the AEP group were significantly increased compared to the DIP group. Together, these results indicate that Raphidiopsis raciborskii exhibits the evolution of coordination of multiple metabolic pathways and certain key genes to adapt to ambient P changes, which implies that if P is reduced to control Raphidiopsis raciborskii bloom, there is a risk that external nutrients (such as nitrogen, amino acids, and urea) will stimulate the growth or metabolism of Raphidiopsis.