Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from pediatric population in Argentina for the period 2006-2019. temporal progression of serotypes distribution and antibiotic resistance.

Abstract

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of severe invasive disease associated with high mortality and morbidity worldwide. A total of 2908 pneumococcal isolates were analyzed between 2006 and 2019. Gold standard pneumococcal serotyping (the Neufeld-Quellung reaction) was performed to identify the serotypes associated with infection in children < 5 years in Argentina and agar dilution method was carried out to determine their profiles to 14 antimicrobial agents. In 2012, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was included in the National Immunization Program. In this work we have analyzed the local epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal diseases before and after the introduction of this vaccine in order to understand the epidemiological relevance and impact of PCV13. During the periods compared in the present study there was a significant increase in the proportion of non-PCV13 serotypes, serogroup 24 (246.7%) and 12F (85.7%), and a significant decrease in PCV13 serotypes, including serotypes 14 (91.2%), 5 (95.6%) and 1 (84.6%) among others. Another observation was that serotypes 3 (7.4%) and 19A (4.9%) still remain among the most frequent serotypes despite being part of the PCV13 formulation. Regarding antimicrobial resistance, in the present study we observed an increase in erythromycin resistance during the period of study mainly associated to serotype 14 in the pre-PCV13 period and to serogroup 24 in the post-PCV13 period, which also was the major NVT serotype associated with antimicrobial resistance and MDR. Serotypes 14, 24A/B/F and 19A were in the first three places among isolates resistant to all the antibiotics tested. Our data highlight the importance of continuous surveillance to assess the impact of pneumococcal vaccines and the use of antibiotics in the dynamic of pneumococcal serotypes.