Survey on different populations of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hem.: Aleyrodidae) resistance to imidacloprid and its effect on Encarsia formosa (Hym.: Aphelinidae) resistance.
The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporarium (Westwood), is an invasive insect pest of agriculture and horticulture worldwide. Imidacloprid as chemical pesticide has been used as a key pesticide for controlling sap-sucking pests and play a major role in controlling this pest. The main purpose of this study was investigation of resistance status of T. vaporarium to imidacloprid SC 35% (Confidor®) and cross resistance to Eforia® and Proteus® and effect of imidacloprid resistance on Encarsia formosa Gahan. Thirteen greenhouse whitefly populations were collected from greenhouses and fields and used for tests. Collected populations reared on cucumber plants under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C, 70±10% relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 h (L:D). The LC50 values were estimated on the second instar nymphs for all populations using leaf dipping bioassay method. The VGR population showed highest LC50 that was 856.2 mg/L. The development of resistance to imidacloprid was confirmed for all tested populations with resistance factors ranging from 2.54 to 44.3. The most resistant strain showed cross resistance to Eforia® and Proteus®. There was no significant difference between LC50 values of E. formosa populations that collected form field, reared on the most resistant population and sensitive population of T. vaporarium. The LC50s were 388.7, 324.7 and 317.7, respectively. We discuss our results in regard to the evolve of imidacloprid resistance in T. vaporariorum populations and its implications for whitefly control.