Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Rio de Janeiro botanical garden and the global genome initiative for gardens.

Abstract

Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden owns one of the most beautiful tropical collections, cultivated throughout its Arboretum. The Arboretum, where 77.9% of the specimens are determined at the species level, has 190 beds, distributed in 42 sections, within 54 ha of cultivated area. The five families with the highest number of taxa represented are Bromeliaceae, Leguminosae, Arecaceae, Orchidaceae and Cactaceae. The living collection, composed by the Arboretum and Thematic Collections, has 11,877 specimens, with 3069 taxa, of which 2950 are species. After a thorough verification process, 541 species were identified as unique to Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden, not being found in any other botanical garden in the world. Of these, 522 are Brazilian and 19 are exotic species; among the Brazilian species, 317 are endemic. Amongst the 541 species unique to JBRJ, 46 are within one of the IUCN's endangered categories: Extinct in Nature (EX)-1, Critically Endangered (CR)-8, Endangered (EN)-20 and Vulnerable (VU)-17. In 2018, JBRJ received a GGI-Gardens Partnership Award and, with it, began a new genome-quality tissue sample collection, the "RBtecido" (RBtissue). Prioritizing taxa absent from other biorepositories worldwide, genome-quality leaf tissues were vouchered and preserved from 290 genera new to GGBN, 27 genera and seven families new to GGBN, new to GenBank and unique to Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden. Together with the results of the 2018 GGBN-GGI Awards Program funding, JBRJ has made more than 6500 DNA and tissue samples of the Brazilian flora discoverable through the GGBN data portal, adding approximately 1200 species to GGBN. Established in June 2004, Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden DNA Bank (RBdna) maintains genetic information of approximately 5700 specimens, representing the high diversity of Brazilian flora, especially among the diverse ecosystems that shape the Atlantic Rainforest biome. The aim is to store DNA from relevant species of endangered Brazilian ecosystems, from different accessions of rare and/or endangered species, from Arboretum collections and from special taxonomic groups. DNA samples come from our researcher's expeditions and from donated plant material or DNA. DNA banks provide an efficient and long-term approach to preserve genetic resources, strengthening the power of traditional strategies by preserving the richness and diversity encoded by plant genomes.