Butterflies and moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera) of the Lokrum island, southern Dalmatia.
In 2016 and 2017 a survey of the butterflies and moth fauna of the island of Lokrum, Dubrovnik was carried out. A total of 208 species were recorded, which, together with 15 species from the literature, raised the total number of known species to 223. The results of our survey can be used as a baseline for the study of future changes in the Lepidoptera composition on the island. In comparison with the literature records, eight butterfly species can be regarded as extinct from the island. The most probable reason for extinction is the degradation of the grassland habitats due to the natural succession as well as the introduction of the European Rabbit and Indian Peafowl. Their presence has probably had a tremendously detrimental effect on the native flora and fauna of the island. To conserve the Lepidoptera fauna of the island, and the still remaining biodiversity, immediate eradication of these introduced species is needed.