Wetlands of the coast of Lima: patterns of plant diversity and challenges for their conservation.
The wetlands of the coast of Lima are ecosystems very close to the city. This makes them particularly important wetlands in composition and function. In recent years, multiple investigations have been carried out on plant diversity of these wetlands. This allows us to know various aspects of their composition and structure. This article compiles the most important information on these ecosystems (mainly at the vegetation level), trying to establish some patterns regarding their diversity at the alpha, beta and gamma levels. As a result, we found that alpha and gamma diversity is intimately related to human activities, which triggers, for example, the presence of invasive species that now represent approximately 50% of the plants. Plant richness is independent of the state of conservation of the areas (having protected areas of high and low diversity compared to the non-protected) and size (the smallest wetland is the one with the highest values of richness per area unit). At the regional level, no patterns of beta diversity have been found, which suggests that we should conserve each wetland along the corridor. Some of the challenges for the conservation of these ecosystems are raised.